Procrastination Research

Solving Procrastination is based on decades of psychological and behavioral procrastination research, which examined how people procrastinate both in experimental as well as in real-world settings.

On this page, you will find a selection of relevant research articles on the topic of procrastination, which were used when creating the content on this website, and which you may find beneficial if you wish to conduct your own research on the topic.


About the research

The research articles on this page are listed in reverse-chronological order, starting with the most recent articles first and going back in time. Each item on the list is cited in APA style, and contains a direct link to the study, using the study’s permanent Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

The vast majority of the papers which are listed here are articles which were published in peer-reviewed journals. There are a few exceptions, such as book chapters, doctoral dissertations, and entries in scientific encyclopedias, all of which were written by scientists who are experts in their fields. This list contains all types of research papers, including theoretical articles, review articles, meta-analyses, experimental studies, clinical studies, and computational studies.

Though this list is comprehensive, there are, of course, many other research articles and studies which were published on procrastination. The ones listed here are those that are notable in their contribution to the content which appears on the site.

Note that a small number of articles listed here aren’t directly about procrastination, but are instead about related topics, which are crucial to understanding procrastination and learning how to deal with it. Such studies discuss, for example, the stages that people go through as they fight their addictive behaviors, and the cognitive mechanisms behind the difficulties that people experience when making decisions.


Article recommendations

A few of the articles on the list are bolded, in order to distinguish key items of research that had the biggest contribution to the site. These are the articles that I would suggest focusing on if you’re looking to read more of the scientific literature on the topic.

In addition, if you want a recommendation for just a single good peer-reviewed article to read about procrastination, I recommend the following:

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Understanding and treating procrastination: a review of a common self-regulatory failure. Psychology, 5(13), 1488-1502.

It’s a high-quality, open-access review article, which provides a good overview of the topic.

Alternatively, you can also read the main articles which are published on this site. There are four of them which you can read that cover most of the information on the topic:

Finally, I also publish summaries of selected new research articles as they come out, with a focus on research that has practical applications. You can find these research summaries here.


Procrastination research articles

Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2019). Procrastination and rational/irrational beliefs: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. Advance online publication.

Bernecker, K., & Job, V. (2019). Too exhausted to go to bed: Implicit theories about willpower and stress predict bedtime procrastination. British Journal of Psychology. Advance online publication.

Cheung, R. Y., & Ng, M. C. (2019). Being in the moment later? Testing the inverse relation between mindfulness and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 141, 123-126.

Hernández, C., Ottenberger, D. R., Moessner, M., Crosby, R. D., & Ditzen, B. (2019). Depressed and swiping my problems for later: The moderation effect between procrastination and depressive symptomatology on internet addiction. Computers in Human Behavior. Advance online publication.

Goroshit, M., & Hen, M. (2019). Academic procrastination and academic performance: Do learning disabilities matter?. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

Malouff, J. M., & Schutte, N. S. (2019). The efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing procrastination: A meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Counseling & Development, 97(2), 117-127.

Zhang, S., Becker, B., Chen, Q., & Feng, T. (2019). Insufficient task‐outcome association promotes task procrastination through a decrease of hippocampal–striatal interaction. Human Brain Mapping, 40(2), 597-607.

Zhang, S., Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2019). To do it now or later: The cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates underlying procrastination. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, e1492. Advance online publication.

Abramowski, A. (2018). Is procrastination all that “bad”? A qualitative study of academic procrastination and self-worth in postgraduate university students. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 158-170.

Ashworth, B., & McCown, W. (2018). Trait procrastination, hoarding, and continuous performance attention scores. Current Psychology, 37(2), 454-459.

Chowdhury, S. F., & Pychyl, T. A. (2018). A critique of the construct validity of active procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 7-12.

Ferrari, J. R., Roster, C. A., Crum, K. P., & Pardo, M. A. (2018). Procrastinators and clutter: An ecological view of living with excessive “stuff”. Current Psychology, 37(2), 441-444.

Hen, M. (2018). Academic procrastination and feelings toward procrastination in LD and non-LD students: Preliminary insights for future intervention. Journal of Pevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 199-212.

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2018). General and life-domain procrastination in highly educated adults in Israel. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1173.

Hu, Y., Liu, P., Guo, Y., & Feng, T. (2018). The neural substrates of procrastination: A voxel-based morphometry study. Brain and Cognition, 121, 11-16.

Hudson, N. W., Briley, D. A., Chopik, W. J., & Derringer, J. (2018). You have to follow through: Attaining behavioral change goals predicts volitional personality change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication.

Kühnel, J., Sonnentag, S., Bledow, R., & Melchers, K. G. (2018). The relevance of sleep and circadian misalignment for procrastination among shift workers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(1), 110-133.

Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2018). The effect of future time perspective on procrastination: the role of parahippocampal gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Brain Imaging and Behavior. Advance online publication.

Metin, U. B., Peeters, M. C., & Taris, T. W. (2018). Correlates of procrastination and performance at work: The role of having “good fit”. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(3), 228-244.

Rozental, A., Forsström, D., Lindner, P., Nilsson, S., Mårtensson, L., Rizzo, A., … & Carlbring, P. (2018). Treating procrastination using cognitive behavior therapy: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing treatment delivered via the Internet or in groups. Behavior Therapy, 49(2), 180-197.

van Eerde, W., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2018). Overcoming procrastination? A meta-analysis of intervention studies. Educational Research Review, 25, 73-85.

Van Eerde, W., & Venus, M. (2018). A daily diary study on sleep quality and procrastination at work: The moderating role of trait self-control. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2029.

Blouin‐Hudon, E. M. C., & Pychyl, T. A. (2017). A mental imagery intervention to increase future self‐continuity and reduce procrastination. Applied Psychology, 66(2), 326-352.

Di Nocera, F., Ricciardi, O., Abate, G., & Bevilacqua, A. (2017). Does the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met human polymorphism influence procrastination?. Organisms. Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(2), 27-36.

Fernie, B. A., Bharucha, Z., Nikčević, A. V., Marino, C., & Spada, M. M. (2017). A metacognitive model of procrastination. Journal of Affective Disorders, 210, 196-203.

He, S. (2017). A multivariate investigation into academic procrastination of university students. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5(10), 12.

Kim, S., Fernandez, S., & Terrier, L. (2017). Procrastination, personality traits, and academic performance: When active and passive procrastination tell a different story. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 154-157.

Klein, E. M., Beutel, M. E., Müller, K. W., Wölfling, K., Brähler, E., & Zenger, M. (2017). Assessing procrastination: Dimensionality and measurement invariance of the General Procrastination Scale–Screening (GPS-S) in a representative sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication.

Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2017). Self-distancing: Theory, research, and current directions. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 55, pp. 81-136).

Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2017). The overlapping brain region accounting for the relationship between procrastination and impulsivity: a voxel-based morphometry study. Neuroscience, 360, 9-17.

Nordby, K., Klingsieck, K. B., & Svartdal, F. (2017). Do procrastination-friendly environments make students delay unnecessarily?. Social Psychology of Education, 20(3), 491-512.

Rozental, A., Forsell, E., Svensson, A., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2017). Overcoming procrastination: One-year follow-up and predictors of change in a randomized controlled trial of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 46(3), 177-195.

Sirois, F. M., Molnar, D. S., & Hirsch, J. K. (2017). A meta‐analytic and conceptual update on the associations between procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism. European Journal of Personality, 31(2), 137-159.

Ward, A. F., Duke, K., Gneezy, A., & Bos, M. W. (2017). Brain drain: The mere presence of one’s own smartphone reduces available cognitive capacity. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 2(2), 140-154.

White, R. E., Prager, E. O., Schaefer, C., Kross, E., Duckworth, A. L., & Carlson, S. M. (2017). The “Batman Effect”: Improving perseverance in young children. Child Development, 88(5), 1563-1571.

Wohl, M. J., Salmon, M. M., Hollingshead, S. J., Lidstone, S. K., & Tabri, N. (2017). The dark side of self-forgiveness: Forgiving the self can impede change for ongoing, harmful behavior. In Handbook of the Psychology of Self-Forgiveness (pp. 147-159). Springer, Cham.

Yeh, Y. C., Wang, P. W., Huang, M. F., Lin, P. C., Chen, C. S., & Ko, C. H. (2017). The procrastination of Internet gaming disorder in young adults: The clinical severity. Psychiatry Research, 254, 258-262.

Zhang, C., Ni, Y., & Feng, T. (2017). The effect of regulatory mode on procrastination: Bi-stable parahippocampus connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex. Behavioural Brain Research, 329, 51-57.

Beutel, M. E., Klein, E. M., Aufenanger, S., Brähler, E., Dreier, M., Müller, K. W., … & Wölfling, K. (2016). Procrastination, distress and life satisfaction across the age range – A German representative community study. PLoS One, 11(2), e0148054.

Chen, B. B., Shi, Z., & Wang, Y. (2016). Do peers matter? Resistance to peer influence as a mediator between self-esteem and procrastination among undergraduates. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1529.

Eckert, M., Ebert, D. D., Lehr, D., Sieland, B., & Berking, M. (2016). Overcome procrastination: Enhancing emotion regulation skills reduce procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 10-18.

Kroese, F. M., Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Anderson, J. H., & de Ridder, D. T. (2016). Bedtime procrastination: A behavioral perspective on sleep insufficiency. In Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being (pp. 93-119).

Kroese, F. M., Evers, C., Adriaanse, M. A., & de Ridder, D. T. (2016). Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(5), 853-862.

Kühnel, J., Bledow, R., & Feuerhahn, N. (2016). When do you procrastinate? Sleep quality and social sleep lag jointly predict self‐regulatory failure at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(7), 983-1002.

Mann, L. (2016). Procrastination revisited: A commentary. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 47-51.

Meier, A., Reinecke, L., & Meltzer, C. E. (2016). “Facebocrastination”? Predictors of using Facebook for procrastination and its effects on students’ well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 65-76.

Rahimi, S., Hall, N. C., & Pychyl, T. A. (2016). Attributions of responsibility and blame for procrastination behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1179.

Rebetez, M. M. L., Barsics, C., Rochat, L., D’Argembeau, A., & Van der Linden, M. (2016). Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking. Consciousness and Cognition, 42, 286-292.

van Eerde, W. (2016). Procrastination and well-being at work. In Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being (pp. 233-253).

Xu, S., Wang, Z. J., & David, P. (2016). Media multitasking and well-being of university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 242-250.

Yockey, R. D. (2016). Validation of the short form of the Academic Procrastination Scale. Psychological Reports118(1), 171- 179.

Chernev, A., Böckenholt, U., & Goodman, J. (2015). Choice overload: A conceptual review and meta‐analysis. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25(2), 333-358.

Gustavson, D. E., Miyake, A., Hewitt, J. K., & Friedman, N. P. (2015). Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(6), 1063.

Haghbin, M. (2015). Conceptualization and operationalization of delay: Development and validation of the multifaceted measure of academic procrastination and the delay questionnaire. (Doctoral dissertation). Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26-33.

Rozental, A., Forsell, E., Svensson, A., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Internet-based cognitive—behavior therapy for procrastination: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(4), 808.

Rozental, A., Forsell, E., Svensson, A., Forsström, D., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Differentiating procrastinators from each other: A cluster analysis. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 44(6), 480-490.

Tibbett, T. P., & Ferrari, J. R. (2015). The portrait of the procrastinator: Risk factors and results of an indecisive personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 175-184.

Bisin, A., & Hyndman, K. (2014). Present-bias, procrastination and deadlines in a field experiment. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. w19874.

Gustavson, D. E., Miyake, A., Hewitt, J. K., & Friedman, N. P. (2014). Genetic relations among procrastination, impulsivity, and goal-management ability: Implications for the evolutionary origin of procrastination. Psychological Science, 25(6), 1178-1188.

Häfner, A., Oberst, V., & Stock, A. (2014). Avoiding procrastination through time management: An experimental intervention study. Educational Studies, 40(3), 352-360.

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2014). Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: A comparison between students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 116-124.

Katz, I., Eilot, K., & Nevo, N. (2014). “I’ll do it later”: Type of motivation, self-efficacy and homework procrastination. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 111-119.

Krause, K., & Freund, A. M. (2014). How to beat procrastination: The role of goal focus. European Psychologist, 19(2), 132.

Kroese, F. M., de Ridder, D. T., Evers, C., & Adriaanse, M. A. (2014). Bedtime procrastination: introducing a new area of procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 611.

Niermann, H. C., & Scheres, A. (2014). The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 23(4), 411-421.

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Understanding and treating procrastination: a review of a common self-regulatory failure. Psychology, 5(13), 1488-1502.

Sirois, F. M. (2014). Procrastination and stress: Exploring the role of self-compassion. Self and Identity, 13(2), 128-145.

Wäschle, K., Allgaier, A., Lachner, A., Fink, S., & Nückles, M. (2014). Procrastination and self-efficacy: Tracing vicious and virtuous circles in self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 29, 103-114.

Acorn, A., & Buttuls, J. (2013). The not now habit: Procrastination, legal ethics and legal education. Legal Ethics, 16(1), 73-96.

Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring different types of academic delayers: A latent profile analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 225-233.

Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring reasons and consequences of academic procrastination: An interview study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 841-861.

Klingsieck, K. B. (2013). Procrastination. European Psychologist, 18, 24-34.

Nguyen, B., Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Procrastination’s impact in the workplace and the workplace’s impact on procrastination. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21(4), 388-399.

Ozer, B. U., Demir, A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Reducing academic procrastination through a group treatment program: A pilot study. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 31(3), 127-135.

Prochaska, J. O. (2013). Transtheoretical model of behavior change. In Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine (pp. 1997-2000). Springer, New York, NY.

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2013). Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 2(2), e46.

Shaffer, J. A. (2013). Stages-of-change model. In Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine (pp. 1871-1874). Springer, New York, NY.

Sirois, F., & Pychyl, T. (2013). Procrastination and the priority of short‐term mood regulation: Consequences for future self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 115-127.

Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. (2013). Sex, education and procrastination: An epidemiological study of procrastinators’ characteristics from a global sample. European Journal of Personality, 27(1), 51-58.

Dalley, J. W., & Roiser, J. P. (2012). Dopamine, serotonin and impulsivity. Neuroscience, 215, 42-58.

Haghbin, M., McCaffrey, A., & Pychyl, T. A. (2012). The complexity of the relation between fear of failure and procrastination. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 249-263.

Patrick, V. M., & Hagtvedt, H. (2012). “I don’t” versus “I can’t”: When empowered refusal motivates goal-directed behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(2), 371-381.

Pychyl, T. A., & Flett, G. L. (2012). Procrastination and self-regulatory failure: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 203-212.

Sirois, F. M., & Tosti, N. (2012). Lost in the moment? An investigation of procrastination, mindfulness, and well-being. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 237-248.

Barnard, L. K., & Curry, J. F. (2011). Self-compassion: Conceptualizations, correlates, & interventions. Review of General Psychology, 15(4), 289.

Burger, N., Charness, G., & Lynham, J. (2011). Field and online experiments on self-control. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 77(3), 393-404.

Corkin, D. M., Shirley, L. Y., & Lindt, S. F. (2011). Comparing active delay and procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(5), 602-606.

Herweg, F., & Müller, D. (2011). Performance of procrastinators: on the value of deadlines. Theory and Decision, 70(3), 329-366.

Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217-237.

Çapan, B. E. (2010). Relationship among perfectionism, academic procrastination and life satisfaction of university students. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1665-1671.

Lally, P., Van Jaarsveld, C. H., Potts, H. W., & Wardle, J. (2010). How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(6), 998-1009.

Smith, D. (2010). The effects of student syndrome, stress, and slack on information systems development projects. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 7, 489-494.

Stead, R., Shanahan, M. J., & Neufeld, R. W. (2010). “I’ll go to therapy, eventually”: Procrastination, stress and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(3), 175-180.

Steel, P. (2010). Arousal, avoidant and decisional procrastinators: Do they exist?. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(8), 926-934.

Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review, 117(2), 440.

Wohl, M. J., Pychyl, T. A., & Bennett, S. H. (2010). I forgive myself, now I can study: How self-forgiveness for procrastinating can reduce future procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(7), 803-808.

Choi, J. N., & Moran, S. V. (2009). Why not procrastinate? Development and validation of a new active procrastination scale. The Journal of social psychology149(2), 195-212.

Özer, B. U., Demir, A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2009). Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: Possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(2), 241-257.

Beeftink, F., van Eerde, W., & Rutte, C. G. (2008). The effect of interruptions and breaks on insight and impasses: Do you need a break right now?. Creativity Research Journal, 20(4), 358-364.

Díaz-Morales, J. F., Ferrari, J. R., & Cohen, J. R. (2008). Indecision and avoidant procrastination: The role of morningness—eveningness and time perspective in chronic delay lifestyles. The Journal of General Psychology, 135(3), 228-240.

Eggens, L., Van der Werf, M. P. C., & Bosker, R. J. (2008). The influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education. Higher Education, 55(5), 553-573.

Gröpel, P., & Steel, P. (2008). A mega-trial investigation of goal setting, interest enhancement, and energy on procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(5), 406-411.

Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., Lynch, S. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Procrastination and motivation of undergraduates with learning disabilities: A Mixed‐Methods inquiry. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(3), 137-147.

Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 915-931.

Langberg, J. M., Epstein, J. N., & Graham, A. J. (2008). Organizational-skills interventions in the treatment of ADHD. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8(10), 1549-1561.

McCrea, S. M., Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Sherman, S. J. (2008). Construal level and procrastination. Psychological Science, 19(12), 1308-1314.

Ackerman, D. S., & Gross, B. L. (2007). I can start that JME manuscript next week, can’t I? The task characteristics behind why faculty procrastinate. Journal of Marketing Education, 29(2), 97-110.

Alexander, E. S., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2007). Academic procrastination and the role of hope as a coping strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(7), 1301-1310.

Bui, N. H. (2007). Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology147(3), 197-209.

Ferrari, J. R., Díaz-Morales, J. F., O’Callaghan, J., Díaz, K., & Argumedo, D. (2007). Frequent behavioral delay tendencies by adults: International prevalence rates of chronic procrastination. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(4), 458-464.

Ferrari, J. R., & Pychyl, T. A. (2007). Regulating speed, accuracy and judgments by indecisives: Effects of frequent choices on self-regulation depletion. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(4), 777-787.

Grant, A. M., & Franklin, J. (2007). The transtheoretical model and study skills. Behaviour Change, 24(2), 99-113.

Schraw, G., Wadkins, T., & Olafson, L. (2007). Doing the things we do: A grounded theory of academic procrastination. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 12.

Sirois, F. M. (2007). “I’ll look after my health, later”: A replication and extension of the procrastination–health model with community-dwelling adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(1), 15-26.

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65.

Howell, A. J., & Watson, D. C. (2007). Procrastination: Associations with achievement goal orientation and learning strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(1), 167-178.

Adler, L. A., Spencer, T., Faraone, S. V., Kessler, R. C., Howes, M. J., Biederman, J., & Secnik, K. (2006). Validity of pilot Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) to rate adult ADHD symptoms. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 18(3), 145-148.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta‐analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69-119.

Howell, A. J., Watson, D. C., Powell, R. A., & Buro, K. (2006). Academic procrastination: The pattern and correlates of behavioural postponement. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1519-1530.

Chun Chu, A. H., & Choi, J. N. (2005). Rethinking procrastination: Positive effects of “active” procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance. The Journal of social psychology, 145(3), 245-264.

Lee, E. (2005). The relationship of motivation and flow experience to academic procrastination in university students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 166(1), 5-15.

Penedo, F. J., & Dahn, J. R. (2005). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18(2), 189-193.

Carden, R., Bryant, C., & Moss, R. (2004). Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students. Psychological Reports, 95(2), 581-582.

Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., Davis, R. A., & Sherry, S. B. (2004). Description and Counseling of the Perfectionistic Procrastinator. In Counseling the Procrastinator in Academic Settings (pp. 181-194).

Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1), 3-19.

Eerde, W. V. (2003). Procrastination at work and time management training. The Journal of Psychology, 137(5), 421-434.

Sirois, F. M., Melia-Gordon, M. L., & Pychyl, T. A. (2003). “I’ll look after my health, later”: An investigation of procrastination and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(5), 1167-1184.

van Eerde, W. (2003). A meta-analytically derived nomological network of procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(6), 1401-1418.

Wolters, C. A. (2003). Understanding procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 179.

Ariely, D., & Wertenbroch, K. (2002). Procrastination, deadlines, and performance: Self-control by precommitment. Psychological science, 13(3), 219-224.

Dewitte, S., & Schouwenburg, H. C. (2002). Procrastination, temptations, and incentives: The struggle between the present and the future in procrastinators and the punctual. European Journal of Personality, 16(6), 469-489.

Frederick, S., Loewenstein, G., & O’donoghue, T. (2002). Time discounting and time preference: A critical review. Journal of Economic Literature, 40(2), 351-401.

Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249-275.

O’Donoghue, T., & Rabin, M. (2001). Choice and procrastination. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(1), 121-160.

Schouwenburg, H. C., & Groenewoud, J. (2001). Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(2), 229-240.

Steel, P., Brothen, T., & Wambach, C. (2001). Procrastination and personality, performance, and mood. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(1), 95-106.

Watson, D. C. (2001). Procrastination and the five-factor model: A facet level analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(1), 149-158.

Blunt, A. K., & Pychyl, T. A. (2000). Task aversiveness and procrastination: A multi-dimensional approach to task aversiveness across stages of personal projects. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(1), 153-167.

Day, V., Mensink, D., & O’Sullivan, M. (2000). Patterns of academic procrastination. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 30(2), 120-134.

Dewitte, S., & Lens, W. (2000). Procrastinators lack a broad action perspective. European Journal of Personality, 14(2), 121-140.;2-r

Ferrari, J. R., & Tice, D. M. (2000). Procrastination as a self-handicap for men and women: A task-avoidance strategy in a laboratory setting. Journal of Research in Personality, 34(1), 73-83.

O’Donoghue, T., & Rabin, M. (2000). The economics of immediate gratification. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13(2), 233-250.;2-u

Tice, D. M., & Bratslavsky, E. (2000). Giving in to feel good: The place of emotion regulation in the context of general self-control. Psychological Inquiry, 11(3), 149-159.

van Eerde, W. (2000). Procrastination: Self‐regulation in initiating aversive goals. Applied Psychology, 49(3), 372-389.

Brannon, L. A., Hershberger, P. J., & Brock, T. C. (1999). Timeless demonstrations of Parkinson’s first law. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6(1), 148-156.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54(7), 493.

Janssen, T., & Carton, J. S. (1999). The effects of locus of control and task difficulty on procrastination. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 160(4), 436-442.

Latham, G. P., & Seijts, G. H. (1999). The effects of proximal and distal goals on performance on a moderately complex task. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(4), 421-429.;2-r

Ferrari, J. R., Harriott, J. S., & Zimmerman, M. (1998). The social support networks of procrastinators: Friends or family in times of trouble?. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(2), 321-331.

Haycock, L. A., McCarthy, P., & Skay, C. L. (1998). Procrastination in college students: The role of self‐efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counseling & Development, 76(3), 317-324.

Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological science, 8(6), 454-458.

Senecal, C., Koestner, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (1995). Self-regulation and academic procrastination. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135(5), 607-619.

Ferrari, J. R. (1994). Dysfunctional procrastination and its relationship with self-esteem, interpersonal dependency, and self-defeating behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 17(5), 673-679.

Ferrari, J. R., & Emmons, R. A. (1994). Procrastination as revenge: Do people report using delays as a strategy for vengeance?. Personality and Individual Differences, 17(4), 539-544.

Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Psychometric validation of two procrastination inventories for adults: Arousal and avoidance measures. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14(2), 97-110.

Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47(9), 1102-1114.

Schouwenburg, H. C. (1992). Procrastinators and fear of failure: An exploration of reasons for procrastination. European Journal of Personality, 6(3), 225-236.

Ferrari, J. R. (1991). Compulsive procrastination: Some self-reported characteristics. Psychological Reports, 68(2), 455-458.

Tuckman, B. W. (1991). The development and concurrent validity of the procrastination scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement51(2), 473-480.

Lay, C. H., Edwards, J. M., Parker, J. D., & Endler, N. S. (1989). An assessment of appraisal, anxiety, coping, and procrastination during an examination period. European Journal of Personality, 3(3), 195-208.

Beswick, G., Rothblum, E. D., & Mann, L. (1988). Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Australian Psychologist, 23(2), 207-217.

Milgram, N. A., Sroloff, B., & Rosenbaum, M. (1988). The procrastination of everyday life. Journal of Research in Personality, 22(2), 197-212.

Lay, C. H. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20(4), 474-495.

Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: Study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 150.

Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(4), 503.