Procrastination Research

Solving Procrastination is based on decades of procrastination research, which examined how and why people procrastinate both in various settings.

On this page, you will find a selection of relevant research articles on the topic of procrastination, which were used when creating the content on this website, and which you may find beneficial if you wish to conduct your own research on the topic.


About the research

The research articles on this page are listed in reverse-chronological order, starting with the most recent articles first and going back in time. Each item on the list is cited in APA style, and contains a direct link to the study, using the study’s permanent Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

This list contains all types of research papers, including theoretical articles, review articles, meta-analyses, experimental studies, clinical studies, and computational studies. The vast majority of the papers listed here are articles that were published in peer-reviewed journals, but there are a few exceptions, consisting primarily of book chapters, doctoral dissertations, and entries in scientific encyclopedias, all of which were written by scientists who are experts in the field.

Note that a small number of articles listed here aren’t directly about procrastination, but are instead about related topics, which are important to our understanding of procrastination and how it can be overcome. Such studies discuss, for example, the stages that people go through as they fight their addictive behaviors, or the cognitive mechanisms that make it difficult for some people to be decisive.


Article recommendations

First, note that though the list on this page is comprehensive, there are, of course, many other research papers that were published on the topic of procrastination. The ones listed here are those that are notable in their contribution to the content which appears on the site, and many of them are considered to be key studies in the field of procrastination research.

Furthermore, a few of the articles on the list are bolded, in order to distinguish key items of research that had the biggest contribution to the site, and often to their field. These are the articles that I would suggest focusing on if you’re looking to read more of the scientific literature on the topic.

In addition, if you want a recommendation for just a single good peer-reviewed article to read about procrastination, I recommend the following:

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Understanding and treating procrastination: a review of a common self-regulatory failure. Psychology, 5(13), 1488-1502.

It’s a high-quality, relatively recent, open-access review article, which provides a good overview of the topic.

Alternatively, you can also read the main articles which are available on this site, which also provide an excellent overview of the material:

Finally, if you are interested in reading summaries of selected new research articles that have practical applications, you can do so here.


Procrastination research articles

You, Z., Li, X., Ye, N., & Zhang, L. (2021). Understanding the effect of rumination on sleep quality: a mediation model of negative affect and bedtime procrastination. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

Berber Çelik, Ç., & Odaci, H. (2020). Subjective well-being in university students: what are the impacts of procrastination and attachment styles?. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. Advance online publication.

Chung, S. J., An, H., & Suh, S. (2020). What do people do before going to bed? A study of bedtime procrastination using time use surveys. Sleep, 43(4), zsz267.

Franz, I. (2020). Unintentional procrastination, self control, and academic achievements. Education Economics. Advance online publication.

Guo, J., Meng, D., Ma, X., Zhu, L., Yang, L., & Mu, L. (2020). The impact of bedtime procrastination on depression symptoms in Chinese medical students. Sleep & Breathing, 24, 1247-1255.

Kadzikowska-Wrzosek, R. (2020). Insufficient sleep among adolescents: the role of bedtime procrastination, chronotype and autonomous vs. controlled motivational regulations. Current Psychology, 39(3), 1031-1040.

Liu, H., Ji, Y., & Dust, S. B. (2020). “Fully recharged” evenings? The effect of evening cyber leisure on next-day vitality and performance through sleep quantity and quality, bedtime procrastination, and psychological detachment, and the moderating role of mindfulness. Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication.

Magalhães, P., Cruz, V., Teixeira, S., Fuentes, S., & Rosário, P. (2020). An exploratory study on sleep procrastination: bedtime vs. while-in-bed procrastination. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(16), 5892.

Pollack, S., & Herres, J. (2020). Prior Day Negative Affect Influences Current Day Procrastination: A Lagged Daily Diary Analysis. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33(2), 165-175.

Valshtein, T. J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2020). Using mental contrasting with implementation intentions to reduce bedtime procrastination: two randomised trials. Psychology & Health, 35(3), 275-301.

Zhang, M. X., & Wu, A. M. (2020). Effects of smartphone addiction on sleep quality among Chinese university students: The mediating role of self-regulation and bedtime procrastination. Addictive Behaviors, 111, 106552.

Zhu, L., Meng, D., Ma, X., Guo, J., & Mu, L. (2020). Sleep timing and hygiene practices of high bedtime procrastinators: a direct observational study. Family Practice, 37(6), 779-784.

Zuber, S., Ballhausen, N., Haas, M., Cauvin, S., Da, C., Coelho, S., … & Kliegel, M. (2020). I could do it now, but I’d rather (forget to) do it later: Examining links between procrastination and prospective memory failures. Psychological Research. Advance online publication.

Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2019). Procrastination and rational/irrational beliefs: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 37(3), 299-315.

Bernecker, K., & Job, V. (2019). Too exhausted to go to bed: Implicit theories about willpower and stress predict bedtime procrastination. British Journal of Psychology, 111(1), 126-147.

Cheung, R. Y., & Ng, M. C. (2019). Being in the moment later? Testing the inverse relation between mindfulness and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 141, 123-126.

Exelmans, L., Meier, A., Reinecke, L., & Van Den Bulck, J. (2019). Just one more episode: Predictors of procrastination with television and implications for sleep quality. Mass Communication and Society, 22(5), 654-685.

Goroshit, M., & Hen, M. (2019). Academic procrastination and academic performance: Do learning disabilities matter?. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

Hall, N. C., Lee, S. Y., & Rahimi, S. (2019). Self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout in post-secondary faculty: An international longitudinal analysis. PLOS ONE14(12), e0226716.

Hernández, C., Ottenberger, D. R., Moessner, M., Crosby, R. D., & Ditzen, B. (2019). Depressed and swiping my problems for later: The moderation effect between procrastination and depressive symptomatology on internet addiction. Computers in Human Behavior, 97, 1-9.

Herzog-Krzywoszanska, R., & Krzywoszanski, L. (2019). Bedtime procrastination, self-reported sleep outcomes and demographic factors in an online survey on a Polish sample. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, 963.

Hudson, N. W., Briley, D. A., Chopik, W. J., & Derringer, J. (2019). You have to follow through: Attaining behavioral change goals predicts volitional personality change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117(4), 839-857.

Klein, E. M., Beutel, M. E., Müller, K. W., Wölfling, K., Brähler, E., & Zenger, M. (2019). Assessing procrastination: Dimensionality and measurement invariance of the General Procrastination Scale–Screening (GPS-S) in a representative sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(5), 633-640.

Krispenz, A., Gort, C., Schültke, L., & Dickhäuser, O. (2019). How to Reduce Test Anxiety and Academic Procrastination Through Inquiry of Cognitive Appraisals: Investigating the Role of Academic Self-Efficacy. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 1917.

Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2019). The effect of future time perspective on procrastination: the role of parahippocampal gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 13(3), 615-622.

Malouff, J. M., & Schutte, N. S. (2019). The efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing procrastination: A meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Counseling & Development, 97(2), 117-127.

Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Stut, W., De Ridder, D. T., & Anderson, J. H. (2019). The explanations people give for going to bed late: A qualitative study of the varieties of bedtime procrastination. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 17(6), 753-762.

Pinxten, M., De Laet, T., Van Soom, C., Peeters, C., & Langie, G. (2019). Purposeful delay and academic achievement. A critical review of the Active Procrastination Scale. Learning and Individual Differences, 73, 42-51.

Rubin, R. (2020). Matters of the Mind—Bedtime Procrastination, Relaxation-Induced Anxiety, Lonely Tweeters. JAMA, 323(1), 15-16.

Sirois, F. M., Nauts, S., & Molnar, D. S. (2019). Self-compassion and bedtime procrastination: An emotion regulation perspective. Mindfulness, 10(3), 434-445.

Wessel, J., Bradley, G. L., & Hood, M. (2019). Comparing effects of active and passive procrastination: A field study of behavioral delay. Personality and Individual Differences, 139, 152-157.

Zhang, S., Becker, B., Chen, Q., & Feng, T. (2019). Insufficient task‐outcome association promotes task procrastination through a decrease of hippocampal–striatal interaction. Human Brain Mapping, 40(2), 597-607.

Zhang, S., Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2019). To do it now or later: The cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates underlying procrastination. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 10(4), e1492.

Abramowski, A. (2018). Is procrastination all that “bad”? A qualitative study of academic procrastination and self-worth in postgraduate university students. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 158-170.

Ashworth, B., & McCown, W. (2018). Trait procrastination, hoarding, and continuous performance attention scores. Current Psychology, 37(2), 454-459.

Kamphorst, B. A., Nauts, S., De Ridder, D. T., & Anderson, J. H. (2018). Too depleted to turn in: the relevance of end-of-the-day resource depletion for reducing bedtime procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 252.

Chowdhury, S. F., & Pychyl, T. A. (2018). A critique of the construct validity of active procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 7-12.

Constantin, K., English, M. M., & Mazmanian, D. (2018). Anxiety, depression, and procrastination among students: rumination plays a larger mediating role than worry. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 36(1), 15-27.

Ferrari, J. R., Roster, C. A., Crum, K. P., & Pardo, M. A. (2018). Procrastinators and clutter: An ecological view of living with excessive “stuff”. Current Psychology, 37(2), 441-444.

Göncü Köse, A., & Metin, U. B. (2018). Linking leadership style and workplace procrastination: The role of organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(3), 245-262.

Hen, M. (2018). Academic procrastination and feelings toward procrastination in LD and non-LD students: Preliminary insights for future intervention. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 199-212.

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2018). General and life-domain procrastination in highly educated adults in Israel. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1173.

Hoppe, J. D., Prokop, P., & Rau, R. (2018). Empower, not impose!—Preventing academic procrastination. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 184-198.

Hu, Y., Liu, P., Guo, Y., & Feng, T. (2018). The neural substrates of procrastination: A voxel-based morphometry study. Brain and Cognition, 121, 11-16.

Kadzikowska-Wrzosek, R. (2018). Self-regulation and bedtime procrastination: The role of self-regulation skills and chronotype. Personality and Individual Differences, 128, 10-15.

Kroese, F. M., Adriaanse, M. A., Evers, C., Anderson, J., & de Ridder, D. (2018). Commentary: Why don’t you go to bed on time? A daily diary study on the relationships between chronotype, self-control resources and the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 915.

Kühnel, J., Sonnentag, S., Bledow, R., & Melchers, K. G. (2018). The relevance of sleep and circadian misalignment for procrastination among shift workers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(1), 110-133.

Kühnel, J., Syrek, C. J., & Dreher, A. (2018). Why don’t you go to bed on time? A daily diary study on the relationships between chronotype, self-control resources and the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 77.

Metin, U. B., Peeters, M. C., & Taris, T. W. (2018). Correlates of procrastination and performance at work: The role of having “good fit”. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(3), 228-244.

Mouratidis, A., Michou, A., Aelterman, N., Haerens, L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2018). Begin-of-school-year perceived autonomy-support and structure as predictors of end-of-school-year study efforts and procrastination: the mediating role of autonomous and controlled motivation. Educational Psychology, 38(4), 435-450.

Prem, R., Scheel, T. E., Weigelt, O., Hoffmann, K., & Korunka, C. (2018). Procrastination in daily working life: A diary study on within-person processes that link work characteristics to workplace procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1087.

Rozental, A., Forsström, D., Lindner, P., Nilsson, S., Mårtensson, L., Rizzo, A., … & Carlbring, P. (2018). Treating procrastination using cognitive behavior therapy: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing treatment delivered via the Internet or in groups. Behavior Therapy, 49(2), 180-197.

van den Berg, J., & Roosen, S. (2018). Two faces of employee inactivity: Procrastination and recovery. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(3), 295-307.

van Eerde, W., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2018). Overcoming procrastination? A meta-analysis of intervention studies. Educational Research Review, 25, 73-85.

van Eerde, W., & Venus, M. (2018). A daily diary study on sleep quality and procrastination at work: The moderating role of trait self-control. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2029.

Zacks, S., & Hen, M. (2018). Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 117-130.

Zhang, Y., Dong, S., Fang, W., Chai, X., Mei, J., & Fan, X. (2018). Self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure as mediators between self-esteem and academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 23(4), 817-830.

Blouin‐Hudon, E. M. C., & Pychyl, T. A. (2017). A mental imagery intervention to increase future self‐continuity and reduce procrastination. Applied Psychology, 66(2), 326-352.

Di Nocera, F., Ricciardi, O., Abate, G., & Bevilacqua, A. (2017). Does the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met human polymorphism influence procrastination?. Organisms, 1(2), 27-36.

Exelmans, L., & Van den Bulck, J. (2017). “Glued to the Tube” The Interplay Between Self-Control, Evening Television Viewing, and Bedtime Procrastination. Communication Research. Advance online publication.

Fernie, B. A., Bharucha, Z., Nikčević, A. V., Marino, C., & Spada, M. M. (2017). A metacognitive model of procrastination. Journal of Affective Disorders, 210, 196-203.

He, S. (2017). A multivariate investigation into academic procrastination of university students. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5(10), 12.

Kim, S., Fernandez, S., & Terrier, L. (2017). Procrastination, personality traits, and academic performance: When active and passive procrastination tell a different story. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 154-157.

Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2017). The overlapping brain region accounting for the relationship between procrastination and impulsivity: a voxel-based morphometry study. Neuroscience, 360, 9-17.

Nordby, K., Klingsieck, K. B., & Svartdal, F. (2017). Do procrastination-friendly environments make students delay unnecessarily?. Social Psychology of Education, 20(3), 491-512.

Rozental, A., Forsell, E., Svensson, A., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2017). Overcoming procrastination: One-year follow-up and predictors of change in a randomized controlled trial of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 46(3), 177-195.

Sirois, F. M., Molnar, D. S., & Hirsch, J. K. (2017). A meta‐analytic and conceptual update on the associations between procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism. European Journal of Personality, 31(2), 137-159.

Ward, A. F., Duke, K., Gneezy, A., & Bos, M. W. (2017). Brain drain: The mere presence of one’s own smartphone reduces available cognitive capacity. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 2(2), 140-154.

Liu, W., Pan, Y., Luo, X., Wang, L., & Pang, W. (2017). Active procrastination and creative ideation: The mediating role of creative self-efficacy. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 227-229.

Westgate, E. C., Wormington, S. V., Oleson, K. C., & Lindgren, K. P. (2017). Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 47(3), 124-135.

White, R. E., Prager, E. O., Schaefer, C., Kross, E., Duckworth, A. L., & Carlson, S. M. (2017). The “Batman Effect”: Improving perseverance in young children. Child Development, 88(5), 1563-1571.

Wohl, M. J., Salmon, M. M., Hollingshead, S. J., Lidstone, S. K., & Tabri, N. (2017). The dark side of self-forgiveness: Forgiving the self can impede change for ongoing, harmful behavior. In Handbook of the Psychology of Self-Forgiveness (pp. 147-159). Springer.

Wolters, C. A., Won, S., & Hussain, M. (2017). Examining the relations of time management and procrastination within a model of self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 12(3), 381-399.

Yeh, Y. C., Wang, P. W., Huang, M. F., Lin, P. C., Chen, C. S., & Ko, C. H. (2017). The procrastination of Internet gaming disorder in young adults: The clinical severity. Psychiatry Research, 254, 258-262.

Zhang, C., Ni, Y., & Feng, T. (2017). The effect of regulatory mode on procrastination: Bi-stable parahippocampus connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex. Behavioural Brain Research, 329, 51-57.

Beutel, M. E., Klein, E. M., Aufenanger, S., Brähler, E., Dreier, M., Müller, K. W., … & Wölfling, K. (2016). Procrastination, distress and life satisfaction across the age range – A German representative community study. PLOS One, 11(2), e0148054.

Chen, B. B., Shi, Z., & Wang, Y. (2016). Do peers matter? Resistance to peer influence as a mediator between self-esteem and procrastination among undergraduates. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1529.

Eckert, M., Ebert, D. D., Lehr, D., Sieland, B., & Berking, M. (2016). Overcome procrastination: Enhancing emotion regulation skills reduce procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 10-18.

Frakes, M. D., & Wasserman, M. F. (2016). Procrastination in the Workplace: Evidence from the US Patent Office. NBER Working Paper No. w22987. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Grunschel, C., Schwinger, M., Steinmayr, R., & Fries, S. (2016). Effects of using motivational regulation strategies on students’ academic procrastination, academic performance, and well-being. Learning and Individual Differences, 49, 162-170.

Hairston, I. S., & Shpitalni, R. (2016). Procrastination is linked with insomnia symptoms: The moderating role of morningness-eveningness. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 50-56.

Hensley, L. C. (2016). The draws and drawbacks of college students’ active procrastination. Journal of College Student Development, 57(4), 465-471.

Kroese, F. M., Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Anderson, J. H., & de Ridder, D. T. (2016). Bedtime procrastination: A behavioral perspective on sleep insufficiency. In Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being (pp. 93-119). Academic Press.

Kroese, F. M., Evers, C., Adriaanse, M. A., & de Ridder, D. T. (2016). Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(5), 853-862.

Kühnel, J., Bledow, R., & Feuerhahn, N. (2016). When do you procrastinate? Sleep quality and social sleep lag jointly predict self‐regulatory failure at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(7), 983-1002.

Mann, L. (2016). Procrastination revisited: A commentary. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 47-51.

Meier, A., Reinecke, L., & Meltzer, C. E. (2016). “Facebocrastination”? Predictors of using Facebook for procrastination and its effects on students’ well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 65-76.

Metin, U. B., Taris, T. W., & Peeters, M. C. (2016). Measuring procrastination at work and its associated workplace aspects. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 254-263.

Rahimi, S., Hall, N. C., & Pychyl, T. A. (2016). Attributions of responsibility and blame for procrastination behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1179.

Rebetez, M. M. L., Barsics, C., Rochat, L., D’Argembeau, A., & Van der Linden, M. (2016). Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking. Consciousness and Cognition, 42, 286-292.

Sirois, F. M. (2016). Procrastination, stress, and chronic health conditions: A temporal perspective. In Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being (pp. 67-92). Academic Press.

Steel, P., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic procrastination: Psychological antecedents revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 36-46.

van Eerde, W. (2016). Procrastination and well-being at work. In Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being (pp. 233-253). Academic Press.

Xu, S., Wang, Z. J., & David, P. (2016). Media multitasking and well-being of university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 242-250.

Yockey, R. D. (2016). Validation of the short form of the Academic Procrastination Scale. Psychological Reports118(1), 171- 179.

Chernev, A., Böckenholt, U., & Goodman, J. (2015). Choice overload: A conceptual review and meta‐analysis. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25(2), 333-358.

Glick, D. M., & Orsillo, S. M. (2015). An investigation of the efficacy of acceptance-based behavioral therapy for academic procrastination. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(2), 400.

Gustavson, D. E., Miyake, A., Hewitt, J. K., & Friedman, N. P. (2015). Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(6), 1063.

Haghbin, M. (2015). Conceptualization and operationalization of delay: Development and validation of the multifaceted measure of academic procrastination and the delay questionnaire. (Doctoral dissertation). Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26-33.

Rozental, A., Forsell, E., Svensson, A., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Internet-based cognitive—behavior therapy for procrastination: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(4), 808.

Rozental, A., Forsell, E., Svensson, A., Forsström, D., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Differentiating procrastinators from each other: A cluster analysis. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 44(6), 480-490.

Tibbett, T. P., & Ferrari, J. R. (2015). The portrait of the procrastinator: Risk factors and results of an indecisive personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 175-184.

Bisin, A., & Hyndman, K. (2014). Present-bias, procrastination and deadlines in a field experiment. NBER Working Paper No. w19874. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Dunn, K. (2014). Why wait? The influence of academic self-regulation, intrinsic motivation, and statistics anxiety on procrastination in online statistics. Innovative Higher Education, 39(1), 33-44.

Hensley, L. C. (2014). Reconsidering active procrastination: Relations to motivation and achievement in college anatomy. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 157-164.

Mohsin, F. Z., & Ayub, N. (2014). The relationship between procrastination, delay of gratification, and job satisfaction among high school teachers. Japanese Psychological Research, 56(3), 224-234.

Gustavson, D. E., Miyake, A., Hewitt, J. K., & Friedman, N. P. (2014). Genetic relations among procrastination, impulsivity, and goal-management ability: Implications for the evolutionary origin of procrastination. Psychological Science, 25(6), 1178-1188.

Häfner, A., Oberst, V., & Stock, A. (2014). Avoiding procrastination through time management: An experimental intervention study. Educational Studies, 40(3), 352-360.

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2014). Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: A comparison between students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 116-124.

Katz, I., Eilot, K., & Nevo, N. (2014). “I’ll do it later”: Type of motivation, self-efficacy and homework procrastination. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 111-119.

Krause, K., & Freund, A. M. (2014). How to beat procrastination: The role of goal focus. European Psychologist, 19(2), 132.

Kroese, F. M., de Ridder, D. T., Evers, C., & Adriaanse, M. A. (2014). Bedtime procrastination: introducing a new area of procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 611.

Niermann, H. C., & Scheres, A. (2014). The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 23(4), 411-421.

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Understanding and treating procrastination: a review of a common self-regulatory failure. Psychology, 5(13), 1488-1502.

Sirois, F. M. (2014). Procrastination and stress: Exploring the role of self-compassion. Self and Identity, 13(2), 128-145.

Wan, H. C., Downey, L. A., & Stough, C. (2014). Understanding non-work presenteeism: Relationships between emotional intelligence, boredom, procrastination and job stress. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 86-90.

Wäschle, K., Allgaier, A., Lachner, A., Fink, S., & Nückles, M. (2014). Procrastination and self-efficacy: Tracing vicious and virtuous circles in self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 29, 103-114.

Acorn, A., & Buttuls, J. (2013). The not now habit: Procrastination, legal ethics and legal education. Legal Ethics, 16(1), 73-96.

Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring different types of academic delayers: A latent profile analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 225-233.

Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring reasons and consequences of academic procrastination: An interview study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 841-861.

Kim, E., & Seo, E. H. (2013). The relationship of flow and self-regulated learning to active procrastination. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 41(7), 1099-1113.

Klingsieck, K. B. (2013). Procrastination: When good things don’t come to those who wait. European Psychologist, 18, 24-34.

Nguyen, B., Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Procrastination’s impact in the workplace and the workplace’s impact on procrastination. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21(4), 388-399.

Ozer, B. U., Demir, A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Reducing academic procrastination through a group treatment program: A pilot study. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 31(3), 127-135.

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2013). Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 2(2), e46.

Sirois, F., & Pychyl, T. (2013). Procrastination and the priority of short‐term mood regulation: Consequences for future self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 115-127.

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