Procrastination Research: Articles and Studies about Procrastination

Here, you will find a comprehensive collection of research about procrastination. It comes in two parts:

  • List of accessible articles about procrastination from this website, which summarize and synthesize existing procrastination research.
  • List of all the procrastination research that was used to write the articles on the website.

The sources that were used to write the articles come from many fields, such as psychology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience. They include many types of papers, such as theoretical articles, review articles, meta-analyses, experimental studies, clinical studies, and computational studies. Most of these are publications in peer-reviewed journals, but some represent other types of academic sources, including book chapters, doctoral dissertations, and entries in scientific encyclopedias, all written by scientific experts.

There are hundreds of procrastination papers listed in this bibliography. A selection of key ones are bolded; these are recommended items to start with if you want to read the scientific literature about procrastination.


Procrastination articles

The following are the key articles on the website that summarize and synthesize existing procrastination research:

Below, you will find all the procrastination research that these articles are based on, which is cited throughout the articles using hyperlinks. Note that the articles also cite additional sources that are not listed here, primarily about topics that are relevant for understanding and dealing with procrastination, but that are not directly about procrastination itself (e.g., the stages that people go through as they work to change their behavior).


Procrastination research papers

Chen, G., & Lyu, C. (2024). The relationship between smartphone addiction and procrastination among students: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 224, Article 112652.

Araya-Castillo, L., Burgos, M., González, P., Rivera, Y., Barrientos, N., Yáñez Jara, V., … & Sáez, W. (2023). Procrastination in university students: A proposal of a theoretical model. Behavioral Sciences, 13(2), Article 128.

Arnold, I. J. (2023). The link between procrastination and graduation rates: Evidence from the ALEKS learning platform. Education Economics, 31(3), 275-287.

Bai, H., Li, X., Wang, X., Tong, W., Li, Y., & Hu, W. (2023). Active procrastination incubates more creative thinking: The sequential mediating effect of personal mastery and creative self-concept. Creativity Research Journal. Advance online publication.

Bodalski, E. A., Flory, K., Canu, W. H., Willcutt, E. G., & Hartung, C. M. (2023). ADHD symptoms and procrastination in college students: The roles of emotion dysregulation and self-esteem. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 45(1), 48-57.

Campbell, R. L., & Bridges, A. J. (2023). Bedtime procrastination mediates the relation between anxiety and sleep problems. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 79(3), 803-817.

Cruz, R. N. C., & Miranda, J. O. (2023). Examining procrastination using the DSM-5 personality trait model: Disinhibition as a core personality trait. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

Fuke, T. S. S., Kamber, E., Alunni, M., & Mahy, C. E. V. (2023). The emergence of procrastination in early childhood: Relations with executive control and future-oriented cognition. Developmental Psychology59(3), 579.

Gökalp, Z. Ş., Saritepeci, M., & Durak, H. Y. (2023). The relationship between self-control and procrastination among adolescent: The mediating role of multi screen addiction. Current Psychology, 42(15), 13192-13203.

Johansson, F., Rozental, A., Edlund, K., Côté, P., Sundberg, T., Onell, C., … & Skillgate, E. (2023). Associations between procrastination and subsequent health outcomes among university students in Sweden. JAMA Network Open, 6(1), Article e2249346.

Johnson, S. T., & Most, S. B. (2023). Taking the path of least resistance now, but not later: Pushing cognitive effort into the future reduces effort discounting. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 30(3), 1115-1124.

Koppenborg, M., Klingsieck, K. B., & Hüffmeier, J. (2023). Conjunctive and additive group work reduce academic procrastination: Insights from a vignette study. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

Kühnel, J., Bledow, R., & Kuonath, A. (2023). Overcoming procrastination: Time pressure and positive affect as compensatory routes to action. Journal of Business and Psychology, 38(4), 803-819.

Liu, G. (2023). Exploring different types of procrastination in multinational corporation employees: A latent class analysis. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

Mackiewicz, M. (2023). Why do wantrepreneurs fail to take actions? Moderators of the link between intentions and entrepreneurial actions at the early stage of venturing. Quality & Quantity, 57(1), 323-344.

Oflazian, J. S., & Borders, A. (2023). Does rumination mediate the unique effects of shame and guilt on procrastination?. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 41(1), 237-246.

Rad, H. S., Samadi, S., Sirois, F. M., & Goodarzi, H. (2023). Mindfulness intervention for academic procrastination: A randomized control trial. Learning and Individual Differences, 101, Article 102244.

Sirois, F. M., Stride, C. B., & Pychyl, T. A. (2023). Procrastination and health: A longitudinal test of the roles of stress and health behaviours. British Journal of Health Psychology. Advance online publication.

Teoh, A. N., & Wong, J. W. K. (2023). Mindfulness is associated with better sleep quality in young adults by reducing boredom and bedtime procrastination. Behavioral Sleep Medicine21(1), 61-71.

Aalbers, G., vanden Abeele, M. M., Hendrickson, A. T., de Marez, L., & Keijsers, L. (2022). Caught in the moment: Are there person-specific associations between momentary procrastination and passively measured smartphone use?. Mobile Media & Communication10(11), 115-135.

Aydın, Y., & Aydın, G. (2022). Predictors of procrastination in a moderated mediation analysis: The roles of problematic smartphone use, psychological flexibility, and gender. Psychological Reports. Advance online publication.

Beck, E. D., & Jackson, J. J. (2022). Personalized prediction of behaviors and experiences: An idiographic person–situation test. Psychological Science, 33(10), 1767-1782.

Berber Çelik, Ç., & Odaci, H. (2022). Subjective well-being in university students: What are the impacts of procrastination and attachment styles?. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 50(5), 768-781.

Cosentino, E., McCarroll, C. J., & Michaelian, K. (2022). Resisting temptation and overcoming procrastination: The roles of mental time travel and metacognition. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Deimen, I., & Wirtz, J. (2022). Control, cost, and confidence: Perseverance and procrastination in the face of failure. Games and Economic Behavior, 134, 52-74.

Feng, B., & Sun, W. (2022). Bedtime procrastination and fatigue in Chinese college students: The mediating role of mobile phone addiction. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Advance online publication.

Feyzi Behnagh, R., & Ferrari, J. R. (2022). Exploring 40 years on affective correlates to procrastination: A literature review of situational and dispositional types. Current Psychology41, 1097-1111.

Fostervold, K. I., Ludvigsen, S., & Strømsø, H. I. (2022). Students’ time management and procrastination in the wake of the pandemic. Educational Psychology, 42(10), 1223-1240.

Furlan, L. A., & Cristofolini, T. (2022). Interventions to reduce academic procrastination: A review of their theoretical bases and characteristics. In L. R. V. Gonzaga, L. L. Dellazzana-Zanon, & A. M. Becker da Silva (Eds.), Handbook of stress and academic anxiety (pp. 127-147). Springer.

García-Ros, R., Pérez-González, F., Tomás, J. M., & Sancho, P. (2022). Effects of self-regulated learning and procrastination on academic stress, subjective well-being, and academic achievement in secondary education. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

Gosselin, P., Castonguay, C., Goyette, M., Lambert, R., Brisson, M., Landreville, P., & Grenier, S. (2022). Anxiety among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 92, Article 102633.

Haesevoets, T., De Cremer, D., Hirst, G., De Schutter, L., Stouten, J., van Dijke, M., & Van Hiel, A. (2022). The effect of decisional leader procrastination on employee innovation: Investigating the moderating role of employees’ resistance to change. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 29(1), 131-146.

Hill, V. M., Rebar, A. L., Ferguson, S. A., Shriane, A. E., & Vincent, G. E. (2022). Go to bed! A systematic review and meta-analysis of bedtime procrastination correlates and sleep outcomes. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 66, Article 101697.

Junça‐Silva, A., Neves, P., & Caetano, A. (2022). Procrastination is not only a “thief of time”, but also a thief of happiness: It buffers the beneficial effects of telework on well-being via daily micro-events of IT workers. International Journal of Manpower. Advance online publication.

Kljajic, K., Schellenberg, B. J., & Gaudreau, P. (2022). Why do students procrastinate more in some courses than in others and what happens next? Expanding the multilevel perspective on procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 786249.

Koppenborg, M., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2022). Group work and student procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 94, Article 102117.

Le Bouc, R., & Pessiglione, M. (2022). A neuro-computational account of procrastination behavior. Nature Communications, 13, Article 5639.

Li, X., & Ye, Y. (2022). Fear of missing out and irrational procrastination in the mobile social media environment: A moderated mediation analysis. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 25(1), 59-65.

Lim, V. K., & Teo, T. S. (2022). Cyberloafing: A review and research agenda. Applied Psychology. Advance online publication.

Maier, T., Kühnel, J., & Zimmermann, B. (2022). How did you sleep tonight? The relevance of sleep quality and sleep–wake rhythm for procrastination at work. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 785154.

Meier, A. (2022). Studying problems, not problematic usage: Do mobile checking habits increase procrastination and decrease well-being?. Mobile Media & Communication, 10(2), 272-293.

Miyake, A., & Kane, M. J. (2022). Toward a holistic approach to reducing academic procrastination with classroom interventions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 31(4), 291-304.

Niazov, Z., Hen, M., & Ferrari, J. R. (2022). Online and academic procrastination in students with learning disabilities: The impact of academic stress and self-efficacy. Psychological Reports, 125(2), 890-912.

Ocansey, G., Addo, C., Onyeaka, H. K., Andoh-Arthur, J., & Oppong Asante, K. (2022). The influence of personality types on academic procrastination among undergraduate students. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 10(3), 360-367.

Koppenborg, M., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2022). Social factors of procrastination: Group work can reduce procrastination among students. Social Psychology of Education, 25(1), 249-274.

Pu, Z., Leong, R. L., Chee, M. W., & Massar, S. A. (2022). Bedtime procrastination and chronotype differentially predict adolescent sleep on school nights and non-school nights. Sleep Health, 8(6), 640-647.

Rapoport, O., Bengel, S., Möcklinghoff, S., & Neidhardt, E. (2022). Self-compassion moderates the influence of procrastination on postponing sporting activity. Personality and Individual Differences, 185, Article 111242.

Rebetez, M. M. L., Barsics, C., Montisci, T., & Rochat, L. (2022). Towards a dimensional, multifactorial, and integrative approach to procrastination in everyday life: An illustration through interviews. Psychologica Belgica, 62(1), 166-183.

Rozental, A., Forsström, D., Hussoon, A., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2022). Procrastination among university students: Differentiating severe cases in need of support from less severe cases. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article 783570.

Safari, Y., & Yousefpoor, N. (2022). The role of metacognitive beliefs in predicting academic procrastination among students in Iran: Cross-sectional study. JMIR Medical Education, 8(3), e32185.

Schuenemann, L., Scherenberg, V., von Salisch, M., & Eckert, M. (2022). “I’ll worry about it tomorrow” – Fostering emotion regulation skills to overcome procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article 780675.

Shareinia, H., Ghiyasvandian, S., Rooddehghan, Z., & Esteghamati, A. (2022). Types of health-related procrastination in patients with type-2 diabetes: A qualitative content analysis. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 21(2), 1509-1517.

Shaw, A., & Choi, J. (2022). Big Five personality traits predicting active procrastination at work: When self- and supervisor-ratings tell different stories. Journal of Research in Personality99, Article 104261.

Steel, P., Taras, D., Ponak, A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. (2022). Self-regulation of slippery deadlines: The role of procrastination in work performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 783789.

Suárez, A., Ruiz, Z., & Garcés, Y. (2022). Profiles of undergraduates’ networks addiction: Difference in academic procrastination and performance. Computers & Education, 181, Article 104459.

Sun, T., & Kim, J. E. (2022). The effect of procrastination heterogeneity on team performance. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 87, Article 103231.

Svartdal, F., & Løkke, J. A. (2022). The ABC of academic procrastination: Functional analysis of a detrimental habit. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article 1019261.

Uzun, B., LeBlanc, S., Guclu, I. O., Ferrari, J. R., & Aydemir, A. (2022). Mediation effect of family environment on academic procrastination and life satisfaction: Assessing emerging adults. Current Psychology, 41(2), 1124-1130.

Vangsness, L., Voss, N. M., Maddox, N., Devereaux, V., & Martin, E. (2022). Self-report measures of procrastination exhibit inconsistent concurrent validity, predictive validity, and psychometric properties. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article 784471.

Wieland, L. M., Hoppe, J. D., Wolgast, A., & Ebner-Priemer, U. W. (2022). Task ambiguity and academic procrastination: An experience sampling approach. Learning and Instruction, 81, Article 101595.

Xu, J. (2022). More than minutes: A person-centered approach to homework time, homework time management, and homework procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 70, Article 102087.

Zhou, M., Lam, K. K. L., & Zhang, Y. (2022). Metacognition and academic procrastination: A meta-analytical examination. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 40(2), 334-368.

Alblwi, A., McAlaney, J., Al Thani, D. A. S., Phalp, K., & Ali, R. (2021). Procrastination on social media: Predictors of types, triggers and acceptance of countermeasures. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 11(1), 1-18.

Chen, Z., Liu, P., Zhang, C., Yu, Z., & Feng, T. (2021). Neural markers of procrastination in white matter microstructures and networks. Psychophysiology, 58(5), e13782.

Cui, G., Yin, Y., Li, S., Chen, L., Liu, X., Tang, K., & Li, Y. (2021). Longitudinal relationships among problematic mobile phone use, bedtime procrastination, sleep quality and depressive symptoms in Chinese college students: A cross-lagged panel analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 21, Article 449.

Exelmans, L., & Van den Bulck, J. (2021). “Glued to the tube”: The interplay between self-control, evening television viewing, and bedtime procrastination. Communication Research, 48(4), 594-616.

Gadosey, C. K., Schnettler, T., Scheunemann, A., Fries, S., & Grunschel, C. (2021). The intraindividual co-occurrence of anxiety and hope in procrastination episodes during exam preparations: An experience sampling study. Learning and Individual Differences, 88, Article 102013.

Geng, Y., Gu, J., Wang, J., & Zhang, R. (2021). Smartphone addiction and depression, anxiety: The role of bedtime procrastination and self-control. Journal of Affective Disorders, 293, 415-421.

Goroshit, M., & Hen, M. (2021). Academic procrastination and academic performance: Do learning disabilities matter?. Current Psychology, 40, 2490-2498.

Harima, A., Gießelmann, J., Göttsch, V., & Schlichting, L. (2021). Entrepreneurship? Let us do it later: Procrastination in the intention–behavior gap of student entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 27(5), 1189-1213.

Hen, M., Goroshit, M., & Viengarten, S. (2021). How decisional and general procrastination relate to procrastination at work: An investigation of office and non-office workers. Personality and Individual Differences, 172, Article 110581.

Hong, W., Liua, R. D., Ding, Y., Jiang, S., Yang, X., & Sheng, X. (2021). Academic procrastination precedes problematic mobile phone use in Chinese adolescents: A longitudinal mediation model of distraction cognitions. Addictive Behaviors, 121, Article 106993.

Kelly, S. M., & Walton, H. R. (2021). “I’ll work out tomorrow”: The procrastination in exercise scale. Journal of Health Psychology, 26(13), 2613-2625.

Liu, H., Ji, Y., & Dust, S. B. (2021). “Fully recharged” evenings? The effect of evening cyber leisure on next-day vitality and performance through sleep quantity and quality, bedtime procrastination, and psychological detachment, and the moderating role of mindfulness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(7), 990-1006.

Oguchi, M., Takahashi, T., Nitta, Y., & Kumano, H. (2021). The Moderating Effect of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms on the Relationship Between Procrastination and Internalizing Symptoms in the General Adult Population. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 708579.

Sarid, M., Peled, Y., & Vaknin-Nusbaum, V. (2021). The relationship between second language college students’ perceptions of online feedback on draft-writing and academic procrastination. Reading and Writing, 34(5), 1247-1271.

Shaffer, C. A., & Kazerouni, A. M. (2021). The impact of programming project milestones on procrastination, project outcomes, and course outcomes: A quasi-experimental study in a third-year data structures course. In Proceedings of the 52nd ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (pp. 907-913).

Steinert, C., Heim, N., & Leichsenring, F. (2021). Procrastination, Perfectionism, and Other Work-Related Mental Problems: Prevalence, Types, Assessment, and Treatment—A Scoping Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, Article 736776.

Wartberg, L., Thomasius, R., & Paschke, K. (2021). The relevance of emotion regulation, procrastination, and perceived stress for problematic social media use in a representative sample of children and adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 121, 106788.

Wieland, L. M., Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Limberger, M. F., & Nett, U. E. (2021). Predicting delay in goal-directed action: An experience sampling approach uncovering within-person determinants involved in the onset of academic procrastination behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 695927.

Xu, T., Sirois, F. M., Zhang, L., Yu, Z., & Feng, T. (2021). Neural basis responsible for self-control association with procrastination: Right MFC and bilateral OFC functional connectivity with left dlPFC. Journal of Research in Personality, 91, Article 104064.

Yang, X., Liu, R. D., Ding, Y., Hong, W., & Jiang, S. (2021). The relations between academic procrastination and self-esteem in adolescents: A longitudinal study. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

You, Z., Li, X., Ye, N., & Zhang, L. (2021). Understanding the effect of rumination on sleep quality: A mediation model of negative affect and bedtime procrastination. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

Zuber, S., Ballhausen, N., Haas, M., Cauvin, S., Da, C., Coelho, S., … & Kliegel, M. (2021). I could do it now, but I’d rather (forget to) do it later: Examining links between procrastination and prospective memory failures. Psychological Research, 85, 1602-1612.

Aznar-Díaz, I., Romero-Rodríguez, J. M., García-González, A., & Ramírez-Montoya, M. S. (2020). Mexican and Spanish university students’ Internet addiction and academic procrastination: Correlation and potential factors. PloS one, 15(5), Article e0233655.

Bisin, A., & Hyndman, K. (2020). Present-bias, procrastination and deadlines in a field experiment. Games and Economic Behavior, 119, 339-357.

Bolden, J., & Fillauer, J. P. (2020). “Tomorrow is the busiest day of the week”: Executive functions mediate the relation between procrastination and attention problems. Journal of American College Health, 68(8), 854-863.

Chauhan, R. S., MacDougall, A. E., Buckley, M. R., Howe, D. C., Crisostomo, M. E., & Zeni, T. (2020). Better late than early? Reviewing procrastination in organizations. Management Research Review, 43(10), 1289-1308.

Chung, S. J., An, H., & Suh, S. (2020). What do people do before going to bed? A study of bedtime procrastination using time use surveys. Sleep, 43(4), zsz267.

Doty, D. H., Wooldridge, B. R., Astakhova, M., Fagan, M. H., Marinina, M. G., Caldas, M. P., & Tunçalp, D. (2020). Passion as an excuse to procrastinate: A cross-cultural examination of the relationships between Obsessive Internet passion and procrastination. Computers in Human Behavior, 102, 103-111.

Ferrari, J. R., & Tibbett, T. P. (2020). Procrastination. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences (1st ed., pp. 4046–4053). Springer.

Frakes, M. D., & Wasserman, M. F. (2020). Procrastination at the patent office?. Journal of Public Economics, 183, 104140.

Franz, I. (2020). Unintentional procrastination, self control, and academic achievements. Education Economics, 28(5), 508-525.

Goroshit, M., Hen, M., & Ferrari, J. R. (2020). Life-domain regret regarding procrastination (LDR-P): Scale validation in the United States and Israel. Current Psychology, 39(3), 900-912.

Guo, J., Meng, D., Ma, X., Zhu, L., Yang, L., & Mu, L. (2020). The impact of bedtime procrastination on depression symptoms in Chinese medical students. Sleep & Breathing, 24, 1247-1255.

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2020). The effects of decisional and academic procrastination on students’ feelings toward academic procrastination. Current Psychology, 39(2), 556-563.

Hensley, L. C., & Munn, K. J. (2020). The power of writing about procrastination: Journaling as a tool for change. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 44(10), 1450-1465.

Kadzikowska-Wrzosek, R. (2020). Insufficient sleep among adolescents: The role of bedtime procrastination, chronotype and autonomous vs. controlled motivational regulations. Current Psychology, 39(3), 1031-1040.

Kaftan, O. J., & Freund, A. M. (2020). How to work out and avoid procrastination: The role of goal focus. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 50(3), 145-159.

Kınık, Ö., & Odacı, H. (2020). Effects of dysfunctional attitudes and depression on academic procrastination: Does self-esteem have a mediating role?. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 48(5), 638-649.

Magalhães, P., Cruz, V., Teixeira, S., Fuentes, S., & Rosário, P. (2020). An exploratory study on sleep procrastination: Bedtime vs. while-in-bed procrastination. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(16), Article 5892.

Martinčeková, L., & Enright, R. D. (2020). The effects of self-forgiveness and shame-proneness on procrastination: Exploring the mediating role of affect. Current Psychology, 39(2), 428-437.

Pollack, S., & Herres, J. (2020). Prior day negative affect influences current day procrastination: A lagged daily diary analysis. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33(2), 165-175.

Roster, C. A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2020). Does work stress lead to office clutter, and how? Mediating influences of emotional exhaustion and indecision. Environment and Behavior, 52(9), 923-944.

Roster, C. A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2020). Time is on my side—Or is it? Assessing how perceived control of time and procrastination influence emotional exhaustion on the job. Behavioral Sciences, 10(6), 98.

Rubin, R. (2020). Matters of the mind—Bedtime procrastination, relaxation-induced anxiety, lonely Tweeters. JAMA, 323(1), 15-16.

Schutte, N. S., & de Bolger, A. D. P. (2020). Greater mindfulness is linked to less procrastination. International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology, 5(1), 1-12.

Shin, J., & Grant, A. M. (2020). When putting work off pays off: The curvilinear relationship between procrastination and creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 64(3), 772-798.

Svartdal, F., Dahl, T. I., Gamst-Klaussen, T., Koppenborg, M., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2020). How study environments foster academic procrastination: Overview and recommendations. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article 540910.

Svartdal, F., Klingsieck, K. B., Steel, P., & Gamst-Klaussen, T. (2020). Measuring implemental delay in procrastination: Separating onset and sustained goal striving. Personality and Individual Differences, 156, Article 109762.

Valshtein, T. J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2020). Using mental contrasting with implementation intentions to reduce bedtime procrastination: Two randomised trials. Psychology & Health, 35(3), 275-301.

Zanjani, S., Yunlu, D. G., & Beigh, J. N. S. (2020). Creative procrastinators: Mapping a complex terrain. Personality and Individual Differences, 154, Article 109640.

Zhang, S., & Feng, T. (2020). Modeling procrastination: Asymmetric decisions to act between the present and the future. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 149(2), 311.

Zhang, M. X., & Wu, A. M. (2020). Effects of smartphone addiction on sleep quality among Chinese university students: The mediating role of self-regulation and bedtime procrastination. Addictive Behaviors, 111, Article 106552.

Zhu, L., Meng, D., Ma, X., Guo, J., & Mu, L. (2020). Sleep timing and hygiene practices of high bedtime procrastinators: A direct observational study. Family Practice, 37(6), 779-784.

Altgassen, A. M., Scheres, A. P. J., & Edel, M. A. (2019). Prospective memory (partially) mediates the link between ADHD symptoms and procrastination. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 11, 59-71.

Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2019). Procrastination and rational/irrational beliefs: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 37(3), 299-315.

Bernecker, K., & Job, V. (2019). Too exhausted to go to bed: Implicit theories about willpower and stress predict bedtime procrastination. British Journal of Psychology, 111(1), 126-147.

Cheung, R. Y., & Ng, M. C. (2019). Being in the moment later? Testing the inverse relation between mindfulness and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 141, 123-126.

Exelmans, L., Meier, A., Reinecke, L., & Van Den Bulck, J. (2019). Just one more episode: Predictors of procrastination with television and implications for sleep quality. Mass Communication and Society, 22(5), 654-685.

Gamst-Klaussen, T., Steel, P., & Svartdal, F. (2019). Procrastination and personal finances: Exploring the roles of planning and financial self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 775.

Gautam, A., Polizzi, C. P., & Mattson, R. E. (2019). Mindfulness, procrastination, and anxiety: Assessing their interrelationships. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice. Advance online publication.

Hall, N. C., Lee, S. Y., & Rahimi, S. (2019). Self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout in post-secondary faculty: An international longitudinal analysis. PLOS ONE14(12), Article e0226716.

Hernández, C., Ottenberger, D. R., Moessner, M., Crosby, R. D., & Ditzen, B. (2019). Depressed and swiping my problems for later: The moderation effect between procrastination and depressive symptomatology on internet addiction. Computers in Human Behavior, 97, 1-9.

Herzog-Krzywoszanska, R., & Krzywoszanski, L. (2019). Bedtime procrastination, self-reported sleep outcomes and demographic factors in an online survey on a Polish sample. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, Article 963.

Klein, E. M., Beutel, M. E., Müller, K. W., Wölfling, K., Brähler, E., & Zenger, M. (2019). Assessing procrastination: Dimensionality and measurement invariance of the General Procrastination Scale–Screening (GPS-S) in a representative sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(5), 633-640.

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