Procrastination Research

Procrastination Research

Solving Procrastination is based on decades of psychological and behavioral research, which examined how people procrastinate both in experimental as well as in real-world settings.

On this page, you will find a selection of relevant research studies and articles on the topic of procrastination, which were used when creating the content on this website, and which you may find beneficial if you wish to conduct your own research on the topic.

 

About the studies

The articles on this page are listed in reverse-chronological order, starting with the most recent articles first and going back in time. Each item on the list is cited in APA style, and contains a direct link to the study, using the study’s permanent Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

The vast majority of the papers which are cited here are articles which were published in peer-reviewed journals. A few exceptions are peer-reviewed book chapters and entries in scientific encyclopedias, all of which were written by scientists who are experts in their fields. This list contains all types of research papers, including theoretical articles, review articles, meta-analyses, experimental studies, clinical studies, and computational studies.

Though this list is comprehensive, there are, of course, many other research articles and studies which were published on procrastination. The ones listed here are those that are notable in their contribution to the content which appears on the site.

Note that a small number of articles listed here aren’t directly about procrastination, but are instead about related topics, which are crucial to understanding procrastination and learning how to deal with it. Such studies discuss, for example, the stages that people go through as they fight their addictive behaviors, and the cognitive mechanisms behind the difficulties that people experience when making decisions.

 

Article recommendations

A few of the articles in the list are bolded, in order to distinguish the research that had the biggest contribution to the site. These are the items that I would suggest focusing on if you’re looking to read more of the scientific literature on the topic.

In addition, if you want a recommendation for just a single good peer-reviewed article to read, I recommend the following:

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Understanding and treating procrastination: a review of a common self-regulatory failure. Psychology, 5(13), 1488-1502. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2014.513160

It’s a high-quality, open-access review article, which provides an excellent overview of the topic.

Alternatively, you can also read the articles which are published on this site. There are four of them which you can read that cover most of the information on the topic:

 

Procrastination research studies

Abramowski, A. (2018). Is procrastination all that “bad”? A qualitative study of academic procrastination and self-worth in postgraduate university students. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 158-170. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.1198168

Ashworth, B., & McCown, W. (2018). Trait Procrastination, Hoarding, and Continuous Performance Attention Scores. Current Psychology, 37(2), 454-459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9696-3

Chowdhury, S. F., & Pychyl, T. A. (2018). A critique of the construct validity of active procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 7-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.08.016

Ferrari, J. R., Roster, C. A., Crum, K. P., & Pardo, M. A. (2018). Procrastinators and Clutter: An Ecological View of Living with Excessive “Stuff”. Current Psychology, 37(2), 441-444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9682-9

Hen, M. (2018). Academic procrastination and feelings toward procrastination in LD and non-LD students: Preliminary insights for future intervention. Journal of Pevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 199-212. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.1198173

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2018). General and Life-Domain Procrastination in Highly Educated Adults in Israel. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1173. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01173

Hu, Y., Liu, P., Guo, Y., & Feng, T. (2018). The neural substrates of procrastination: A voxel-based morphometry study. Brain and Cognition, 121, 11-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.001

Hudson, N. W., Briley, D. A., Chopik, W. J., & Derringer, J. (2018). You have to follow through: Attaining behavioral change goals predicts volitional personality change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000221

Kühnel, J., Sonnentag, S., Bledow, R., & Melchers, K. G. (2018). The relevance of sleep and circadian misalignment for procrastination among shift workers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(1), 110-133. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12191

Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2018). The effect of future time perspective on procrastination: the role of parahippocampal gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Brain Imaging and Behavior. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-018-9874-4

Metin, U. B., Peeters, M. C., & Taris, T. W. (2018). Correlates of procrastination and performance at work: The role of having “good fit”. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(3), 228-244. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2018.1470187

Rozental, A., Forsström, D., Lindner, P., Nilsson, S., Mårtensson, L., Rizzo, A., … & Carlbring, P. (2018). Treating procrastination using cognitive behavior therapy: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing treatment delivered via the Internet or in groups. Behavior Therapy, 49(2), 180-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.002

van Eerde, W., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2018). Overcoming procrastination? A meta-analysis of intervention studies. Educational Research Review. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.09.002

Zhang, S., Becker, B., Chen, Q., & Feng, T. (2018). Insufficient task‐outcome association promotes task procrastination through a decrease of hippocampal–striatal interaction. Human Brain Mapping. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24397

Blouin‐Hudon, E. M. C., & Pychyl, T. A. (2017). A Mental Imagery Intervention to Increase Future Self‐Continuity and Reduce Procrastination. Applied Psychology, 66(2), 326-352. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12088

Di Nocera, F., Ricciardi, O., Abate, G., & Bevilacqua, A. (2017). Does the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met human polymorphism influence procrastination?. Organisms. Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(2), 27-36. https://doi.org/10.13133/2532-5876_2.7

Fernie, B. A., Bharucha, Z., Nikčević, A. V., Marino, C., & Spada, M. M. (2017). A Metacognitive model of procrastination. Journal of Affective Disorders, 210, 196-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.042

He, S. (2017). A Multivariate Investigation into Academic Procrastination of University Students. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5(10), 12. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.510002

Kim, S., Fernandez, S., & Terrier, L. (2017). Procrastination, personality traits, and academic performance: When active and passive procrastination tell a different story. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 154-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.021

Klein, E. M., Beutel, M. E., Müller, K. W., Wölfling, K., Brähler, E., & Zenger, M. (2017). Assessing Procrastination: Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance of the General Procrastination Scale–Screening (GPS-S) in a Representative Sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000441

Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2017). Self-distancing: Theory, research, and current directions. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 55, pp. 81-136). https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.aesp.2016.10.002

Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2017). The overlapping brain region accounting for the relationship between procrastination and impulsivity: a voxel-based morphometry study. Neuroscience, 360, 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.07.042

Nordby, K., Klingsieck, K. B., & Svartdal, F. (2017). Do procrastination-friendly environments make students delay unnecessarily?. Social Psychology of Education, 20(3), 491-512. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-017-9386-x

Rozental, A., Forsell, E., Svensson, A., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2017). Overcoming procrastination: one-year follow-up and predictors of change in a randomized controlled trial of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 46(3), 177-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2016.1236287

Sirois, F. M., Molnar, D. S., & Hirsch, J. K. (2017). A Meta‐analytic and Conceptual Update on the Associations Between Procrastination and Multidimensional Perfectionism. European Journal of Personality, 31(2), 137-159. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.2098

Ward, A. F., Duke, K., Gneezy, A., & Bos, M. W. (2017). Brain drain: the mere presence of one’s own smartphone reduces available cognitive capacity. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 2(2), 140-154. https://doi.org/10.1086/691462

White, R. E., Prager, E. O., Schaefer, C., Kross, E., Duckworth, A. L., & Carlson, S. M. (2017). The “Batman Effect”: Improving perseverance in young children. Child Development, 88(5), 1563-1571. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12695

Wohl, M. J., Salmon, M. M., Hollingshead, S. J., Lidstone, S. K., & Tabri, N. (2017). The dark side of self-forgiveness: Forgiving the self can impede change for ongoing, harmful behavior. In Handbook of the Psychology of Self-Forgiveness (pp. 147-159). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60573-9_11

Yeh, Y. C., Wang, P. W., Huang, M. F., Lin, P. C., Chen, C. S., & Ko, C. H. (2017). The procrastination of Internet gaming disorder in young adults: The clinical severity. Psychiatry Research, 254, 258-262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.04.055

Zhang, C., Ni, Y., & Feng, T. (2017). The effect of regulatory mode on procrastination: Bi-stable parahippocampus connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex. Behavioural Brain Research, 329, 51-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.04.019

Beutel, M. E., Klein, E. M., Aufenanger, S., Brähler, E., Dreier, M., Müller, K. W., … & Wölfling, K. (2016). Procrastination, distress and life satisfaction across the age range–a German representative community study. PLoS One, 11(2), e0148054. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148054

Chen, B. B., Shi, Z., & Wang, Y. (2016). Do peers matter? Resistance to peer influence as a mediator between self-esteem and procrastination among undergraduates. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1529. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01529

Eckert, M., Ebert, D. D., Lehr, D., Sieland, B., & Berking, M. (2016). Overcome procrastination: enhancing emotion regulation skills reduce procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 10-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.10.001

Kroese, F. M., Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Anderson, J. H., & de Ridder, D. T. (2016). Bedtime procrastination: a behavioral perspective on sleep insufficiency. In Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being (pp. 93-119). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802862-9.00005-0

Kühnel, J., Bledow, R., & Feuerhahn, N. (2016). When do you procrastinate? Sleep quality and social sleep lag jointly predict self‐regulatory failure at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(7), 983-1002. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2084

Mann, L. (2016). Procrastination revisited: a commentary. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 47-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12208

Meier, A., Reinecke, L., & Meltzer, C. E. (2016). “Facebocrastination”? Predictors of using Facebook for procrastination and its effects on students’ well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 65-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.06.011

Rahimi, S., Hall, N. C., & Pychyl, T. A. (2016). Attributions of responsibility and blame for procrastination behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1179. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01179

Rebetez, M. M. L., Barsics, C., Rochat, L., D’Argembeau, A., & Van der Linden, M. (2016). Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking. Consciousness and Cognition, 42, 286-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.04.003

van Eerde, W. (2016). Procrastination and Well-being at Work. In Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being (pp. 233-253). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802862-9.00011-6

Xu, S., Wang, Z. J., & David, P. (2016). Media multitasking and well-being of university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 242-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.040

Yockey, R. D. (2016). Validation of the short form of the Academic Procrastination Scale. Psychological Reports118(1), 171- 179. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0033294115626825

Chernev, A., Böckenholt, U., & Goodman, J. (2015). Choice overload: A conceptual review and meta‐analysis. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25(2), 333-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2014.08.002

Gustavson, D. E., Miyake, A., Hewitt, J. K., & Friedman, N. P. (2015). Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(6), 1063. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000110

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.038

Rozental, A., Forsell, E., Svensson, A., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Internet-based cognitive—behavior therapy for procrastination: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(4), 808. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000023

Rozental, A., Forsell, E., Svensson, A., Forsström, D., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Differentiating procrastinators from each other: A cluster analysis. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 44(6), 480-490. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2015.1059353

Rozental, A., Forsström, D., Tangen, J. A., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Experiences of undergoing Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination: A qualitative study. Internet Interventions, 2(3), 314-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2015.05.001

Tibbett, T. P., & Ferrari, J. R. (2015). The portrait of the procrastinator: Risk factors and results of an indecisive personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 175-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.014

Bisin, A., & Hyndman, K. (2014). Present-bias, procrastination and deadlines in a field experiment. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. w19874. https://doi.org/10.3386/w19874

Gustavson, D. E., Miyake, A., Hewitt, J. K., & Friedman, N. P. (2014). Genetic relations among procrastination, impulsivity, and goal-management ability: Implications for the evolutionary origin of procrastination. Psychological Science, 25(6), 1178-1188. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0956797614526260

Häfner, A., Oberst, V., & Stock, A. (2014). Avoiding procrastination through time management: An experimental intervention study. Educational Studies, 40(3), 352-360. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2014.899487

Katz, I., Eilot, K., & Nevo, N. (2014). “I’ll do it later”: Type of motivation, self-efficacy and homework procrastination. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-013-9366-1

Krause, K., & Freund, A. M. (2014). How to beat procrastination: The role of goal focus. European Psychologist, 19(2), 132. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000153

Kroese, F. M., de Ridder, D. T., Evers, C., & Adriaanse, M. A. (2014). Bedtime procrastination: introducing a new area of procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 611. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00611

Kroese, F. M., Evers, C., Adriaanse, M. A., & de Ridder, D. T. (2014). Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(5), 853-862. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1359105314540014

Langberg, J. M., Epstein, J. N., & Graham, A. J. (2008). Organizational-skills interventions in the treatment of ADHD. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8(10), 1549-1561. https://doi.org/10.1586/14737175.8.10.1549

Niermann, H. C., & Scheres, A. (2014). The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 23(4), 411-421. https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.1440

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Understanding and treating procrastination: a review of a common self-regulatory failure. Psychology, 5(13), 1488-1502. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2014.513160

Sirois, F. M. (2014). Procrastination and stress: Exploring the role of self-compassion. Self and Identity, 13(2), 128-145. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2013.763404

Acorn, A., & Buttuls, J. (2013). The Not Now Habit: Procrastination, Legal Ethics and Legal Education. Legal Ethics, 16(1), 73-96. https://doi.org/10.5235/1460728x.1.1.73

Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring different types of academic delayers: A latent profile analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 225-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2012.09.014

Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring reasons and consequences of academic procrastination: An interview study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 841-861. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0143-4

Klingsieck, K. B. (2013). Procrastination. European Psychologist, 18, 24-34. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000138

Nguyen, B., Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Procrastination’s Impact in the Workplace and the Workplace’s Impact on Procrastination. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21(4), 388-399. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijsa.12048

Ozer, B. U., Demir, A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Reducing academic procrastination through a group treatment program: A pilot study. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 31(3), 127-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-013-0165-0

Prochaska, J. O. (2013). Transtheoretical model of behavior change. In Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine (pp. 1997-2000). Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_70

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2013). Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 2(2), e46. http://doi.org/10.2196/resprot.2801

Shaffer, J. A. (2013). Stages-of-change Model. In Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine (pp. 1871-1874). Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_1180

Sirois, F., & Pychyl, T. (2013). Procrastination and the priority of short‐term mood regulation: Consequences for future self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12011

Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. (2013). Sex, education and procrastination: An epidemiological study of procrastinators’ characteristics from a global sample. European Journal of Personality, 27(1), 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1851

Haghbin, M., McCaffrey, A., & Pychyl, T. A. (2012). The complexity of the relation between fear of failure and procrastination. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 249-263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-012-0153-9

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2014). Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: A comparison between students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 116-124. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219412439325

Patrick, V. M., & Hagtvedt, H. (2012). “I don’t” versus “I can’t”: When empowered refusal motivates goal-directed behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(2), 371-381. https://doi.org/10.1086/663212

Pychyl, T. A., & Flett, G. L. (2012). Procrastination and self-regulatory failure: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 203-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-012-0149-5

Sirois, F. M., & Tosti, N. (2012). Lost in the moment? An investigation of procrastination, mindfulness, and well-being. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 237-248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-012-0151-y

Barnard, L. K., & Curry, J. F. (2011). Self-compassion: Conceptualizations, correlates, & interventions. Review of General Psychology, 15(4), 289. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025754

Burger, N., Charness, G., & Lynham, J. (2011). Field and online experiments on self-control. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 77(3), 393-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2010.11.010

Corkin, D. M., Shirley, L. Y., & Lindt, S. F. (2011). Comparing active delay and procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(5), 602-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.07.005

Herweg, F., & Müller, D. (2011). Performance of procrastinators: on the value of deadlines. Theory and Decision, 70(3), 329-366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11238-010-9195-6

Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004

Çapan, B. E. (2010). Relationship among perfectionism, academic procrastination and life satisfaction of university students. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1665-1671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.342

Lally, P., Van Jaarsveld, C. H., Potts, H. W., & Wardle, J. (2010). How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(6), 998-1009. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.674

Smith, D. (2010). The effects of student syndrome, stress, and slack on information systems development projects. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 7, 489-494. https://doi.org/10.28945/1222

Stead, R., Shanahan, M. J., & Neufeld, R. W. (2010). “I’ll go to therapy, eventually”: Procrastination, stress and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(3), 175-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.028

Steel, P. (2010). Arousal, avoidant and decisional procrastinators: Do they exist?. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(8), 926-934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.025

Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review, 117(2), 440. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018963

Wohl, M. J., Pychyl, T. A., & Bennett, S. H. (2010). I forgive myself, now I can study: How self-forgiveness for procrastinating can reduce future procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(7), 803-808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.029

Choi, J. N., & Moran, S. V. (2009). Why not procrastinate? Development and validation of a new active procrastination scale. The Journal of social psychology149(2), 195-212. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.149.2.195-212

Özer, B. U., Demir, A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2009). Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: Possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(2), 241-257. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.149.2.241-257

Beeftink, F., van Eerde, W., & Rutte, C. G. (2008). The effect of interruptions and breaks on insight and impasses: Do you need a break right now?. Creativity Research Journal, 20(4), 358-364. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400410802391314

Díaz-Morales, J. F., Ferrari, J. R., & Cohen, J. R. (2008). Indecision and avoidant procrastination: The role of morningness—eveningness and time perspective in chronic delay lifestyles. The Journal of General Psychology, 135(3), 228-240. https://doi.org/10.3200/genp.135.3.228-240

Eggens, L., Van der Werf, M. P. C., & Bosker, R. J. (2008). The influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education. Higher Education, 55(5), 553-573. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-007-9074-4

Gröpel, P., & Steel, P. (2008). A mega-trial investigation of goal setting, interest enhancement, and energy on procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(5), 406-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.015

Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., Lynch, S. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Procrastination and motivation of undergraduates with learning disabilities: A Mixed‐Methods inquiry. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(3), 137-147. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2008.00271.x

Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 915-931. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.07.001

McCrea, S. M., Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Sherman, S. J. (2008). Construal level and procrastination. Psychological Science, 19(12), 1308-1314. https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1467-9280.2008.02240.x

Ackerman, D. S., & Gross, B. L. (2007). I can start that JME manuscript next week, can’t I? The task characteristics behind why faculty procrastinate. Journal of Marketing Education, 29(2), 97-110. https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475307302012

Alexander, E. S., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2007). Academic procrastination and the role of hope as a coping strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(7), 1301-1310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.008

Bui, N. H. (2007). Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology147(3), 197-209. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.147.3.197-209

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