Procrastination Research

Solving Procrastination is based on decades of procrastination research, which examined how and why people procrastinate both in various settings.

On this page, you will find a selection of relevant research articles on the topic of procrastination, which were used when creating the content on this website, and which you may find beneficial if you wish to conduct your own research on the topic.

 

About the research

The research articles on this page are listed in reverse-chronological order, starting with the most recent articles first and going back in time. Each item on the list is cited in APA style, and contains a direct link to the study, using the study’s permanent Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

This list contains all types of research papers, including theoretical articles, review articles, meta-analyses, experimental studies, clinical studies, and computational studies. The vast majority of the papers listed here are articles that were published in peer-reviewed journals, but there are a few exceptions, consisting primarily of book chapters, doctoral dissertations, and entries in scientific encyclopedias, all of which were written by scientists who are experts in the field.

Note that the website also includes other articles beyond the ones listed here, which aren’t directly about procrastination, but which are about related topics that are important to our understanding of procrastination and how it can be overcome. Such studies discuss, for example, the stages that people go through as they fight their addictive behaviors, or the cognitive mechanisms that make it difficult for some people to be decisive.

 

Article recommendations

First, note that though the list on this page is comprehensive, there are, of course, many other research papers that were published on the topic of procrastination. The ones listed here are those that are notable in their contribution to the content which appears on the site, and many of them are considered to be key studies in the field of procrastination research.

Furthermore, a few of the articles on the list are bolded, in order to distinguish key items of research. These are the articles that I would suggest focusing on if you’re looking to read more of the scientific literature on the topic.

In addition, if you want a recommendation for just a single good peer-reviewed article to read about procrastination, I recommend the following:

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Understanding and treating procrastination: a review of a common self-regulatory failure. Psychology, 5(13), 1488-1502. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2014.513160

It’s a high-quality, relatively recent, open-access review article, which provides a good overview of the topic.

Alternatively, you can also read the main articles which are available on this site, which also provide an excellent overview of the material:

Finally, if you are interested in reading summaries of selected new research articles that have practical applications, you can do so here.

 

Procrastination research articles

Aalbers, G., vanden Abeele, M. M., Hendrickson, A. T., de Marez, L., & Keijsers, L. (2022). Caught in the moment: Are there person-specific associations between momentary procrastination and passively measured smartphone use?. Mobile Media & Communication10(11), 115-135. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050157921993896

Arnold, I. J. (2022). The link between procrastination and graduation rates: Evidence from the ALEKS learning platform. Education Economics. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/09645292.2022.2063796

Feng, B., & Sun, W. (2022). Bedtime procrastination and fatigue in Chinese college students: The mediating role of mobile phone addiction. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-022-00796-z

Feyzi Behnagh, R., & Ferrari, J. R. (2022). Exploring 40 years on affective correlates to procrastination: A literature review of situational and dispositional types. Current Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02653-z

Gökalp, Z. Ş., Saritepeci, M., & Durak, H. Y. (2022). The relationship between self-control and procrastination among adolescent: The mediating role of multi screen addiction. Current Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02472-2

Kühnel, J., Bledow, R., & Kuonath, A. (2022). Overcoming procrastination: Time pressure and positive affect as compensatory routes to action. Journal of Business and Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-022-09817-z

Li, X., & Ye, Y. (2022). Fear of missing out and irrational procrastination in the mobile social media environment: A moderated mediation analysis. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 25(1), 59-65. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2021.0052

Mackiewicz, M. (2022). Why do wantrepreneurs fail to take actions? Moderators of the link between intentions and entrepreneurial actions at the early stage of venturing. Quality & Quantity. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-022-01337-5

Rapoport, O., Bengel, S., Möcklinghoff, S., & Neidhardt, E. (2022). Self-compassion moderates the influence of procrastination on postponing sporting activity. Personality and Individual Differences, 185, Article 111242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111242

Rebetez, M. M. L., Barsics, C., Montisci, T., & Rochat, L. (2022). Towards a dimensional, multifactorial, and integrative approach to procrastination in everyday life: An illustration through interviews. Psychologica Belgica, 62(1), 166-183. https://doi.org/10.5334/pb.1115

Shaw, A., & Choi, J. (2022). Big Five personality traits predicting active procrastination at work: When self- and supervisor-ratings tell different stories. Journal of Research in Personality99, Article 104261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2022.104261

Suárez, A., Ruiz, Z., & Garcés, Y. (2022). Profiles of undergraduates’ networks addiction: Difference in academic procrastination and performance. Computers & Education, 181, Article 104459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2022.104459

Sun, T., & Kim, J. E. (2022). The effect of procrastination heterogeneity on team performance. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 87, Article 103231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2021.103231

Teoh, A. N., & Wong, J. W. K. (2022). Mindfulness is associated with better sleep quality in young adults by reducing boredom and bedtime procrastination. Behavioral Sleep Medicine. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2022.2035729

Uzun, B., LeBlanc, S., Guclu, I. O., Ferrari, J. R., & Aydemir, A. (2022). Mediation effect of family environment on academic procrastination and life satisfaction: Assessing emerging adults. Current Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02652-0

Wieland, L. M., Hoppe, J. D., Wolgast, A., & Ebner-Priemer, U. W. (2022). Task ambiguity and academic procrastination: An experience sampling approach. Learning and Instruction. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2022.101595

Alblwi, A., McAlaney, J., Al Thani, D. A. S., Phalp, K., & Ali, R. (2021). Procrastination on social media: Predictors of types, triggers and acceptance of countermeasures. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 11(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13278-021-00727-1

Cui, G., Yin, Y., Li, S., Chen, L., Liu, X., Tang, K., & Li, Y. (2021). Longitudinal relationships among problematic mobile phone use, bedtime procrastination, sleep quality and depressive symptoms in Chinese college students: A cross-lagged panel analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 21, Article 449. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03451-4

Gadosey, C. K., Schnettler, T., Scheunemann, A., Fries, S., & Grunschel, C. (2021). The intraindividual co-occurrence of anxiety and hope in procrastination episodes during exam preparations: An experience sampling study. Learning and Individual Differences, 88, Article 102013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2021.102013

Geng, Y., Gu, J., Wang, J., & Zhang, R. (2021). Smartphone addiction and depression, anxiety: The role of bedtime procrastination and self-control. Journal of Affective Disorders, 293, 415-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.062

Haesevoets, T., De Cremer, D., Hirst, G., De Schutter, L., Stouten, J., van Dijke, M., & Van Hiel, A. (2021). The effect of decisional leader procrastination on employee innovation: Investigating the moderating role of employees’ resistance to change. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/15480518211044166

Harima, A., Gießelmann, J., Göttsch, V., & Schlichting, L. (2021). Entrepreneurship? Let us do it later: Procrastination in the intention–behavior gap of student entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 27(5), 1189-1213. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-09-2020-0665

Hen, M., Goroshit, M., & Viengarten, S. (2021). How decisional and general procrastination relate to procrastination at work: An investigation of office and non-office workers. Personality and Individual Differences, 172, Article 110581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110581

Hong, W., Liua, R. D., Ding, Y., Jiang, S., Yang, X., & Sheng, X. (2021). Academic procrastination precedes problematic mobile phone use in Chinese adolescents: A longitudinal mediation model of distraction cognitions. Addictive Behaviors, 121, Article 106993. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106993

Kelly, S. M., & Walton, H. R. (2021). “I’ll work out tomorrow”: The procrastination in exercise scale. Journal of Health Psychology, 26(13), 2613-2625. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105320916541

Meier, A. (2021). Studying problems, not problematic usage: Do mobile checking habits increase procrastination and decrease well-being?. Mobile Media & Communication. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/20501579211029326

Niazov, Z., Hen, M., & Ferrari, J. R. (2021). Online and academic procrastination in students with learning disabilities: The impact of academic stress and self-efficacy. Psychological Reports. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294120988113

Oguchi, M., Takahashi, T., Nitta, Y., & Kumano, H. (2021). The Moderating Effect of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms on the Relationship Between Procrastination and Internalizing Symptoms in the General Adult Population. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 708579. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.708579

Sarid, M., Peled, Y., & Vaknin-Nusbaum, V. (2021). The relationship between second language college students’ perceptions of online feedback on draft-writing and academic procrastination. Reading and Writing, 34(5), 1247-1271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-020-10111-8

Shaffer, C. A., & Kazerouni, A. M. (2021). The impact of programming project milestones on procrastination, project outcomes, and course outcomes: A quasi-experimental study in a third-year data structures course. In Proceedings of the 52nd ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (pp. 907-913). https://doi.org/10.1145/3408877.3432356

Steinert, C., Heim, N., & Leichsenring, F. (2021). Procrastination, Perfectionism, and Other Work-Related Mental Problems: Prevalence, Types, Assessment, and Treatment—A Scoping Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, Article 736776. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.736776

Wartberg, L., Thomasius, R., & Paschke, K. (2021). The relevance of emotion regulation, procrastination, and perceived stress for problematic social media use in a representative sample of children and adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 121, 106788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106788

Yang, X., Liu, R. D., Ding, Y., Hong, W., & Jiang, S. (2021). The relations between academic procrastination and self-esteem in adolescents: A longitudinal study. Current Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02075-x

You, Z., Li, X., Ye, N., & Zhang, L. (2021). Understanding the effect of rumination on sleep quality: A mediation model of negative affect and bedtime procrastination. Current Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-01337-4

Zhou, M., Lam, K. K. L., & Zhang, Y. (2021). Metacognition and academic procrastination: A meta-analytical examination. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-021-00415-1

Aznar-Díaz, I., Romero-Rodríguez, J. M., García-González, A., & Ramírez-Montoya, M. S. (2020). Mexican and Spanish university students’ Internet addiction and academic procrastination: Correlation and potential factors. PloS one, 15(5), Article e0233655. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233655

Berber Çelik, Ç., & Odaci, H. (2020). Subjective well-being in university students: What are the impacts of procrastination and attachment styles?. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2020.1803211

Bolden, J., & Fillauer, J. P. (2020). “Tomorrow is the busiest day of the week”: Executive functions mediate the relation between procrastination and attention problems. Journal of American College Health, 68(8), 854-863. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2019.1626399

Chauhan, R. S., MacDougall, A. E., Buckley, M. R., Howe, D. C., Crisostomo, M. E., & Zeni, T. (2020). Better late than early? Reviewing procrastination in organizations. Management Research Review, 43(10), 1289-1308. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-09-2019-0413

Chung, S. J., An, H., & Suh, S. (2020). What do people do before going to bed? A study of bedtime procrastination using time use surveys. Sleep, 43(4), zsz267. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz267

Doty, D. H., Wooldridge, B. R., Astakhova, M., Fagan, M. H., Marinina, M. G., Caldas, M. P., & Tunçalp, D. (2020). Passion as an excuse to procrastinate: A cross-cultural examination of the relationships between Obsessive Internet passion and procrastination. Computers in Human Behavior, 102, 103-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.08.014

Frakes, M. D., & Wasserman, M. F. (2020). Procrastination at the patent office?. Journal of Public Economics, 183, 104140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104140

Franz, I. (2020). Unintentional procrastination, self control, and academic achievements. Education Economics. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/09645292.2020.1801596

Guo, J., Meng, D., Ma, X., Zhu, L., Yang, L., & Mu, L. (2020). The impact of bedtime procrastination on depression symptoms in Chinese medical students. Sleep & Breathing, 24, 1247-1255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-020-02079-0

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2020). The effects of decisional and academic procrastination on students’ feelings toward academic procrastination. Current Psychology, 39(2), 556-563. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9777-3

Hensley, L. C., & Munn, K. J. (2020). The power of writing about procrastination: journaling as a tool for change. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 44(10), 1450-1465. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2019.1702154

Kadzikowska-Wrzosek, R. (2020). Insufficient sleep among adolescents: The role of bedtime procrastination, chronotype and autonomous vs. controlled motivational regulations. Current Psychology, 39(3), 1031-1040. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9825-7

Kaftan, O. J., & Freund, A. M. (2020). How to work out and avoid procrastination: The role of goal focus. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 50(3), 145-159. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12646

Kınık, Ö., & Odacı, H. (2020). Effects of dysfunctional attitudes and depression on academic procrastination: Does self-esteem have a mediating role?. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 48(5), 638-649. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2020.1780564

Liu, H., Ji, Y., & Dust, S. B. (2020). “Fully recharged” evenings? The effect of evening cyber leisure on next-day vitality and performance through sleep quantity and quality, bedtime procrastination, and psychological detachment, and the moderating role of mindfulness. Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000818

Magalhães, P., Cruz, V., Teixeira, S., Fuentes, S., & Rosário, P. (2020). An exploratory study on sleep procrastination: Bedtime vs. while-in-bed procrastination. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(16), 5892. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165892

Martinčeková, L., & Enright, R. D. (2020). The effects of self-forgiveness and shame-proneness on procrastination: Exploring the mediating role of affect. Current Psychology, 39(2), 428-437. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9926-3

Pollack, S., & Herres, J. (2020). Prior day negative affect influences current day procrastination: A lagged daily diary analysis. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33(2), 165-175. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2020.1722573

Roster, C. A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2020). Time is on my side—Or is it? Assessing how perceived control of time and procrastination influence emotional exhaustion on the job. Behavioral Sciences, 10(6), 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10060098

Rubin, R. (2020). Matters of the mind—Bedtime procrastination, relaxation-induced anxiety, lonely Tweeters. JAMA, 323(1), 15-16. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.20014

Schutte, N. S., & de Bolger, A. D. P. (2020). Greater mindfulness is linked to less procrastination. International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology, 5(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41042-019-00025-4

Shin, J., & Grant, A. M. (2020). When putting work off pays off: The curvilinear relationship between procrastination and creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 64(3), 772-798. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1471

Svartdal, F., Klingsieck, K. B., Steel, P., & Gamst-Klaussen, T. (2020). Measuring implemental delay in procrastination: Separating onset and sustained goal striving. Personality and Individual Differences, 156, Article 109762. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109762

Valshtein, T. J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2020). Using mental contrasting with implementation intentions to reduce bedtime procrastination: Two randomised trials. Psychology & Health, 35(3), 275-301. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2019.1652753

Zanjani, S., Yunlu, D. G., & Beigh, J. N. S. (2020). Creative procrastinators: Mapping a complex terrain. Personality and Individual Differences, 154, Article 109640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109640

Zhang, S., & Feng, T. (2020). Modeling procrastination: Asymmetric decisions to act between the present and the future. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 149(2), 311. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000643

Zhang, M. X., & Wu, A. M. (2020). Effects of smartphone addiction on sleep quality among Chinese university students: The mediating role of self-regulation and bedtime procrastination. Addictive Behaviors, 111, Article 106552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106552

Zhu, L., Meng, D., Ma, X., Guo, J., & Mu, L. (2020). Sleep timing and hygiene practices of high bedtime procrastinators: A direct observational study. Family Practice, 37(6), 779-784. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmaa079

Zuber, S., Ballhausen, N., Haas, M., Cauvin, S., Da, C., Coelho, S., … & Kliegel, M. (2020). I could do it now, but I’d rather (forget to) do it later: Examining links between procrastination and prospective memory failures. Psychological Research. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-020-01357-6

Altgassen, A. M., Scheres, A. P. J., & Edel, M. A. (2019). Prospective memory (partially) mediates the link between ADHD symptoms and procrastination. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 11, 59-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-018-0273-x

Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2019). Procrastination and rational/irrational beliefs: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 37(3), 299-315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-019-00314-6

Bernecker, K., & Job, V. (2019). Too exhausted to go to bed: Implicit theories about willpower and stress predict bedtime procrastination. British Journal of Psychology, 111(1), 126-147. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12382

Cheung, R. Y., & Ng, M. C. (2019). Being in the moment later? Testing the inverse relation between mindfulness and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 141, 123-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.12.015

Exelmans, L., Meier, A., Reinecke, L., & Van Den Bulck, J. (2019). Just one more episode: Predictors of procrastination with television and implications for sleep quality. Mass Communication and Society, 22(5), 654-685. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2019.1606246

Gamst-Klaussen, T., Steel, P., & Svartdal, F. (2019). Procrastination and personal finances: Exploring the roles of planning and financial self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 775. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00775

Gautam, A., Polizzi, C. P., & Mattson, R. E. (2019). Mindfulness, procrastination, and anxiety: Assessing their interrelationships. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/cns0000209

Goroshit, M., & Hen, M. (2019). Academic procrastination and academic performance: Do learning disabilities matter?. Current Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00183-3

Hall, N. C., Lee, S. Y., & Rahimi, S. (2019). Self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout in post-secondary faculty: An international longitudinal analysis. PLOS ONE14(12), Article e0226716. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226716

Hernández, C., Ottenberger, D. R., Moessner, M., Crosby, R. D., & Ditzen, B. (2019). Depressed and swiping my problems for later: The moderation effect between procrastination and depressive symptomatology on internet addiction. Computers in Human Behavior, 97, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.02.027

Herzog-Krzywoszanska, R., & Krzywoszanski, L. (2019). Bedtime procrastination, self-reported sleep outcomes and demographic factors in an online survey on a Polish sample. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, Article 963. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00963

Hudson, N. W., Briley, D. A., Chopik, W. J., & Derringer, J. (2019). You have to follow through: Attaining behavioral change goals predicts volitional personality change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117(4), 839-857. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000221

Klein, E. M., Beutel, M. E., Müller, K. W., Wölfling, K., Brähler, E., & Zenger, M. (2019). Assessing procrastination: Dimensionality and measurement invariance of the General Procrastination Scale–Screening (GPS-S) in a representative sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(5), 633-640. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000441

Ko, C. Y. A., & Chang, Y. (2019). Investigating the relationships among resilience, social anxiety, and procrastination in a sample of college students. Psychological Reports, 122(1), 231-245. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294118755111

Krispenz, A., Gort, C., Schültke, L., & Dickhäuser, O. (2019). How to reduce test anxiety and academic procrastination through inquiry of cognitive appraisals: Investigating the role of academic self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 1917. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01917

Laybourn, S., Frenzel, A. C., & Fenzl, T. (2019). Teacher procrastination, emotions, and stress: A qualitative study. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 2325. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02325

Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2019). The effect of future time perspective on procrastination: The role of parahippocampal gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 13(3), 615-622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-018-9874-4

Malouff, J. M., & Schutte, N. S. (2019). The efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing procrastination: A meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Counseling & Development, 97(2), 117-127. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12243

Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Stut, W., De Ridder, D. T., & Anderson, J. H. (2019). The explanations people give for going to bed late: A qualitative study of the varieties of bedtime procrastination. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 17(6), 753-762. https://doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2018.1491850

Pinxten, M., De Laet, T., Van Soom, C., Peeters, C., & Langie, G. (2019). Purposeful delay and academic achievement. A critical review of the Active Procrastination Scale. Learning and Individual Differences, 73, 42-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2019.04.010

Schlüter, C., Arning, L., Fraenz, C., Friedrich, P., Pinnow, M., Güntürkün, O., … & Genc, E. (2019). Genetic variation in dopamine availability modulates the self-reported level of action control in a sex-dependent manner. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 14(7), 759-768. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsz049

Sirois, F. M., Nauts, S., & Molnar, D. S. (2019). Self-compassion and bedtime procrastination: An emotion regulation perspective. Mindfulness, 10(3), 434-445. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0983-3

Wessel, J., Bradley, G. L., & Hood, M. (2019). Comparing effects of active and passive procrastination: A field study of behavioral delay. Personality and Individual Differences, 139, 152-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.11.020

Xu, Y. (2019). Proud and productive procrastination? What do we talk about when we talk about #procrastination on Twitter. In International Conference on Digital Transformation and Global Society (pp. 661-671). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37858-5_56

Zhang, S., Becker, B., Chen, Q., & Feng, T. (2019). Insufficient task‐outcome association promotes task procrastination through a decrease of hippocampal–striatal interaction. Human Brain Mapping, 40(2), 597-607. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24397

Zhang, S., Liu, P., & Feng, T. (2019). To do it now or later: The cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates underlying procrastination. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 10(4), e1492. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1492

Abramowski, A. (2018). Is procrastination all that “bad”? A qualitative study of academic procrastination and self-worth in postgraduate university students. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 158-170. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.1198168

Ashworth, B., & McCown, W. (2018). Trait procrastination, hoarding, and continuous performance attention scores. Current Psychology, 37(2), 454-459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9696-3

Kamphorst, B. A., Nauts, S., De Ridder, D. T., & Anderson, J. H. (2018). Too depleted to turn in: The relevance of end-of-the-day resource depletion for reducing bedtime procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article 252. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00252

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